Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav.

Bergens Mus. ?rb. Naturvid., 2: 31, 1918. Basionym: Parmelia ceratophylla var. tubulosa Schaer. - Lich. Helv. Spicil., 10: 459, 1840.
Synonyms: Parmelia tubulosa (Schaer.) Bitter
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2009c, 2010b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Brackel 2013), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Lang 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Abramini & al. 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2019, 2019b), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Benesperi 2009, Brackel 2015, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Ravera & al. 2022b). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1998, 1999a, 2002, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Putortì & al. 1998, Benesperi 2000a, 2011, Benesperi & al. 2007, Brackel 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006, Brackel 2015), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Nöske 2000, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, van den Boom & Giralt 2002, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Czeczuga & al. 1994, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Merlo 2004b, Ottonello 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2008b, Ottonello & al. 2011, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus foliose to subfruticose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, up to 7 cm wide (usually much less), the lobes subcylindrical, 1-3 mm wide, at first adpressed, then soon ascending, up to 3 mm thick, hollow, mostly convex and smooth, dichotomously branched, grey above, black beneath, the tips bearing capitate soralia with farinose soredia. Lower surface black, wrinkled, erhizinate, attached only in the central or basal parts of thallus, otherwise free. Upper cortex of tightly packed, more or less anticlinally oriented hyphae, the cell walls with Cetraria-type lichenan; medulla soon becoming hollow, lining the cavity inside the lobes; lower cortex dark, paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia very rare (not observed in the study area), shortly stalked, lecanorine. Epithecium brown; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, subglobose or broadly ellipsoid, 6.5-8.5 x 4.5-5.5 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, KC+ fleeting pink, P-, UV+ pale violet-blue. Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin; medulla with physodic and 3-hydroxylphysodic acids.
Note: a mainly temperate, holarctic species of acid bark, often occurring on twigs; certainly rarer than H. physodes, and bound to more natural and humid situations.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, 's'Iscala 'e San Giorgio' di Osini.
27.02.2011



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13413)
2001/11/23
detail of soralium


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36832)
2008.02.28



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi
2010


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, 's'Iscala 'e San Giorgio' di Osini.
27.02.2011


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, 's'Iscala 'e San Giorgio' di Osini.
27.02.2011


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, 's'Iscala 'e San Giorgio' di Osini.
27.02.2011


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, 's'Iscala 'e San Giorgio' di Osini.
27.02.2011



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[12647], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Sigmaringen, 4 km nördlich von Irndorf im Irndorfer Hardt, an Birke. TK 7919. Leg. Schumm 20.09.2006, det Schumm.



Curtis Randall Björk - CC BY-SA 4.0
southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



G. Incerti CC BY-Sa 4.0
TSB 31208


Giovanna Potenza
Italy, 2003 Loc Cerro Falcone (Basilicata)


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/