Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 336, 1814. Basionym: Patellaria pulicaris Pers. - Ann. Wetter. Gesellsch. Ges. Naturk., 2, 1: 13, 1810.
Synonyms: Lecanora chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. non auct. p.p.; Lecanora coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. non auct.; Lecanora detrita (Hoffm.) Ach.; Lecanora gangalea auct.; Lecanora pinastri (Schaer.) H. Magn.; Lecanora pulicaris f. pinastri (Schaer.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Lecanora subfusca var. detrita (Hoffm.) A. Massal.; Lecanora subfusca var. pinastri Schaer.
Distribution: N - VG (TSB 18180), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2008c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Griselli & al. 2003, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Watson 2014). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Benesperi 2006, 2011, Benesperi & al. 2007, Brunialti & Frati 2010), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera & al. 1999, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Ravera & Genovesi 2012, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Zedda 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Brackel 2011), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996, van den Boom & Giralt 2002, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Stofer 2006, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: hallus crustose, usually thin and smooth, white to pale grey. Apothecia lecanorine, sessile or slightly constricted at base, 0.4-1.3 mm across, with a brown to very dark brown (almost black) disc and a smooth, raised thalline margin. Thalline exciple corticate, the cortex < 40 μm thick , pulicaris-type, the medullary part with abundant, very large crystals insoluble in K, often intermixed with small crystals soluble in K (in poorly developed apothecia crystals may be sparse or absent); epithecium reddish brown, with abundant, fine crystals dispersed between paraphyses, which are soluble in K but not in N; hymenium colourless, 60-90 µm high; paraphyses slightly thickened at apex (up to 3.5 µm); hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, very thin-walled, with a K/I+ blue, tall tholus penetrated by a faintly amyloid apical cushion, the wall K/I-, surrounded by a blue outer layer, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1- celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, (10-)11-15(-16) x (6.5-)7.5-10 µm, the wall c. 0.8-1 µm thick. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and apothecial margin K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ red. Chemistry: atranorin (major), fumarprotocetraric acid or roccellic acid.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on conifers, more rarely on broad-leaved trees, and on lignum; most common in the Alps, rarer in the mountains of southern Italy. The record from Rome by Munzi & al. (2007) is not accepted here pending confirmation.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 11878



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38041


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php . Courtesy: A. Stridvall



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41463



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[621], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen. An Laubbäumen in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm 7.19.1967, det. J. Poelt.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38041



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41463



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37388


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/