Melanelia stygia (L.) Essl.

Mycotaxon, 7: 47, 1978. Basionym: Lichen stygius L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1143, 1753.
Synonyms: Cetraria stygia (L.) Schaer.; Cornicularia stygia (L.) Nyl.; Imbricaria stygia (L.) DC.; Lichen fahlunensis L.; Parmelia fahlunensis var. stygia (L.) Schaer.; Parmelia reagens (Servít) Gyeln.; Parmelia stygia (L.) Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Thell & al. 2002, 2004, 2009), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, adnate to ascending, forming 3-6(-10) cm wide rosettes. Lobes elongate, (0.5-)1-2(-3) mm wide, convex (flattened in upper part), contiguous to imbricate, with thickened and usually down-turned margins. Upper surface dark brown to black (greenish brown in shade-forms), more or less shiny, with rounded to elongate, whitish, mostly marginal pseudocyphellae often surrounded by a raised margin; lower surface dark brown to black, matt, with scattered, mostly simple, black rhizines. Upper cortex paraplectenchymatous, with a non-pored epicortex, the cell walls containing isolichenan; medulla white. Apothecia lecanorine, mostly submarginal, 2-5(-8) mm across, with a dark disc and a usually knobby, pseudocyphellate thalline margin. Epithecium brownish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, 7-11 x 4-6 µm. Pycnidia frequent, black, laminal, globose, immersed to slightly projecting, often with a gaping ostiole. Conidia dumbbell-shaped (thickened at both ends), 3.5-5.5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-, N-; medulla K+ yellow turning dirty red-brown (rarely K-), C-, KC-, P+ orange-red (rarely P-), I-. Chemistry: several chemotypes, with 1) stictic and norstictic acids (major), fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids (major), 3) no lichen substances. Caperatic, cryptostictic, menegazziaic and constictic acids have been also reported as minor substances.
Note: a circumpolar, arctic-alpine lichen found on siliceous rocks in open habitats, with optimum near and above treeline; widespread in the Alps, where it reaches the nival belt, much rarer in the high Mediterranean mountains. Specimens from Calabria and Sardegna (TSB) are worthy of further study.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very common
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: extremely rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35210)
2002/07/09



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35210)
2002/07/09
pseudocyphellae



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (6845)
2001/12/05


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20334], U.R.S.S. Cucasus Magnus, ad latera occidentalia montis Elbrus, loco Krugozor dicto, 3000-3100 m, ad saxa vulcanica. Leg. A. Vezda, 21.06.1980. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 1539



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20334], U.R.S.S. Cucasus Magnus, ad latera occidentalia montis Elbrus, loco Krugozor dicto, 3000-3100 m, ad saxa vulcanica. Leg. A. Vezda, 21.06.1980. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 1539



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20334], U.R.S.S. Cucasus Magnus, ad latera occidentalia montis Elbrus, loco Krugozor dicto, 3000-3100 m, ad saxa vulcanica. Leg. A. Vezda, 21.06.1980. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 1539



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20334], U.R.S.S. Cucasus Magnus, ad latera occidentalia montis Elbrus, loco Krugozor dicto, 3000-3100 m, ad saxa vulcanica. Leg. A. Vezda, 21.06.1980. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 1539



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20334], U.R.S.S. Cucasus Magnus, ad latera occidentalia montis Elbrus, loco Krugozor dicto, 3000-3100 m, ad saxa vulcanica. Leg. A. Vezda, 21.06.1980. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 1539
c: caperatic acid



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20335], Bohemoslovacia, Slovacia centr., montes Štiavnické vrchy, in Monte Kamenná loco dicto Kamenné supra pagum Vyhne, 370 m, ad saxa eruptiva. Leg. I. Pišút et M. Svetlíková, 7.08.1987. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2194
c: caperatic acid



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20335], Bohemoslovacia, Slovacia centr., montes Štiavnické vrchy, in Monte Kamenná loco dicto Kamenné supra pagum Vyhne, 370 m, ad saxa eruptiva. Leg. I. Pišút et M. Svetlíková, 7.08.1987. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2194



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20335], Bohemoslovacia, Slovacia centr., montes Štiavnické vrchy, in Monte Kamenná loco dicto Kamenné supra pagum Vyhne, 370 m, ad saxa eruptiva. Leg. I. Pišút et M. Svetlíková, 7.08.1987. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2194



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20335], Bohemoslovacia, Slovacia centr., montes Štiavnické vrchy, in Monte Kamenná loco dicto Kamenné supra pagum Vyhne, 370 m, ad saxa eruptiva. Leg. I. Pišút et M. Svetlíková, 7.08.1987. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2194



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20335], Bohemoslovacia, Slovacia centr., montes Štiavnické vrchy, in Monte Kamenná loco dicto Kamenné supra pagum Vyhne, 370 m, ad saxa eruptiva. Leg. I. Pišút et M. Svetlíková, 7.08.1987. A. VEZDA: LICHENES SELECTI EXSICCATI NR. 2194
f: fumarprotocetraric acid, p: protocetraric acid, a & b unknowns



P.L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41998



P.L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41999



P.L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41999


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43972



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43972



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43972



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 44004


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/