Melanohalea exasperatula (Nyl.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Mycol. Res., 108: 882, 2004. Basionym: Parmelia exasperatula Nyl. - Flora, 56: 299, 1873.
Synonyms: Imbricaria olivacea f. papulosa Anzi; Melanelia exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl.; Parmelia aspidota var. exasperatula (Nyl.) P. Syd.; Parmelia papulosa (Anzi) Vain. non Mont.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach & Molaro 2007, Bernini & al. 2010), Ven (Nimis & al. 1996c, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2009, Brackel 2013), TAA (Philippi 1983, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2014, Zarabska & al. 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Anderi & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Stofer 2006, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2019), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2007, 2009, Griselli & al. 2003, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & al. 2001, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Benesperi 2009, Brackel 2015, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1997b, 2002, 2002b, 2003, 2006, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Monaci & al. 1997, Paoli & Loppi 2008, Benesperi 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Umb (Ravera 1998), Laz (Ravera & al. 2003, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015), Mol (Ravera & Genovesi 2012), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Brackel 2011), Bas (Potenza 2006, Brackel 2011, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005, Brackel 2008b, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, adpressed throughout or more often somewhat raised at the periphery, forming regular or irregular, up to 5 cm wide rosettes, isidiate. Lobes broadly rounded, contiguous to slightly imbricate, (l-)3-5 mm wide, flat but often with reflexed margins, pale to dark olive-brown, smooth or slightly wrinkled, often shiny, especially at the tips, rarely lightly pruinose, densely covered in flattened, clavate to spathulate, prostrate to suberect, hollow, 0.3-1(-2) mm long, 0.14-0.25 mm thick, glossy, simple or bifurcate isidia originating from cylindrical papillae. Lower surface pale tan to dark brown in central parts, with mostly simple rhizines. Upper cortex paraplectenchymatous, with a non-pored epicortex, the cell walls containing isolichenan; medulla white; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia rare, lecanorine, to 3 mm across, sessile, with a brown disc and a usually not isidiate thalline margin. Epithecium brown; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, 8-11 x 5-8 µm. Pycnidia usually absent. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, N-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on isolated trees, especially on twigs and sometimes even on conifer needles, in Xanthorion communities; especially common on twigs of Larix throughout the Alps.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by isidia, or isidia-like structures (e.g. schizidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (42350)
2001/12/03


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Melanelia exasperatula


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Melanelia exasperatula



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38040



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m
ohne Flechtensubstanzen



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[1132], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwäbische Alb, Böhmenkirch, an Malus, ca. 670 m



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42350


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/