Myriospora smaragdula (Ach.) Uloth

Nägeli ex Uloth, Flora, 44: 618, 1861. Basionym: Endocarpon smaragdulum Wahlenb. ex Ach. - Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 29, 1803.
Synonyms: Acarospora amphibola Wedd.; Acarospora flavorubens Bagl. & Carestia; Acarospora fuscata var. smaragdula (Wahlenb.) Novák; Acarospora isotorquensis Alstrup; Acarospora lesdainii Harm. ex A.L. Sm. non auct.; Acarospora murina Sandst.; Acarospora scyphulifera var. sensitiva H. Magn.; Acarospora smaragdula subsp. lesdainii (A.L. Sm.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Acarospora smaragdula var. fusca (B. de Lesd.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Acarospora smaragdula var. halophila (H. Magn.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (A.L. Sm.) H. Magn.; Acarospora smaragdula var. murina (Sandst.) H. Magn.; Acarospora smaragdula var. pallescens (Vain.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Lecanora cervina var. smaragdula (Wahlenb.) Schaer.; Myriospora smaragdula subsp. lesdainii (A.L. Sm.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux non auct.; Silobia smaragdula (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) M. Westb. & Wedin; Thelocarpon robustum Eitner; Trimmatothelopsis smaragdula (Wahlenb.) Cl. Roux & Nav.-Ros.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (S-F104826), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006, Giordani & al. 2014), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Matteucci & al. 2015c), Lig. C - Sar (Nöske 2000, Rizzi & al. 2011, Giordani & al. 2013). S - Bas (Puntillo & al. 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Poli & al. 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Brackel 2008b, 2008c).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, yellowish brown to pale brown (rust-red on iron-rich rocks, yellow-green on copper-rich rocks), areolate. Areoles dispersed or in small groups, more or less flat, rounded to irregular, the fertile ones (0.4-)0.6–2(-3) mm wide, flat to slightly convex, epruinose. Epinecral layer 5-20 µm thick; cortex 30-50 µm thick, with a dense layer of crystals; algal layer appearing continuous on a thick section, but actually interrupted by thick anticlinal bundles of medullary hyphae; lower cortex absent. Apothecia lecanorine, (1-)3-6(-8) per areole, immersed, 0.1-0.2(-0.4) mm across, with a usually sunken, at first punctiform, later somewhat expanded, dark brown to brown-black, usually rough, epruinose disc, and a thin thalline margin. Proper exciple colourless, to 50 µm thick in upper part; epithecium reddish brown; hymenium colourless, 120-250 µm high, I+ reddish brown; paraphyses 1-1.5 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells to 3.5 µm wide; hypothecium colourless to greyish, I+ blue. Asci 100-200-spored, clavate, the apical dome K/I-. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid to bacilliform, 2.5-5 x 1-1.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K+ yellow then rapidly blood-red (red crystals in microscope slides), KC-, C-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: norstictic acid.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar, variable species of steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of base- and often metal-rich, sometimes weakly calciferous siliceous rocks, mostly in upland areas. The record from Venezia Giulia reported by Nimis (1993: 59) is excluded, being from Slovenia.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 34105



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34105)
2001/12/12



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17269], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, zwischen Villingen und Stockburg, ca. 3 km NW von Villingen, TK: 7916, 48.071988° N, 8.419199° E, 740 m, auf Granitfelsen. Leg et det. Schumm 03.06.2011.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17269], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, zwischen Villingen und Stockburg, ca. 3 km NW von Villingen, TK: 7916, 48.071988° N, 8.419199° E, 740 m, auf Granitfelsen. Leg et det. Schumm 03.06.2011.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17269], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, zwischen Villingen und Stockburg, ca. 3 km NW von Villingen, TK: 7916, 48.071988° N, 8.419199° E, 740 m, auf Granitfelsen. Leg et det. Schumm 03.06.2011.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17269], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, zwischen Villingen und Stockburg, ca. 3 km NW von Villingen, TK: 7916, 48.071988° N, 8.419199° E, 740 m, auf Granitfelsen. Leg et det. Schumm 03.06.2011.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17269], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, zwischen Villingen und Stockburg, ca. 3 km NW von Villingen, TK: 7916, 48.071988° N, 8.419199° E, 740 m, auf Granitfelsen. Leg et det. Schumm 03.06.2011.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Magnusson A. H. (1935) Acarosporaceae, Thelocarpaceae. - In: Rabenhorst G. L.: Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich, und der Schweiz-. 2nd- IX. Die Flechten. Abt. 5- 1. Gebr. Borntraeger. Leipzig, pp. 1-318. – Public Domain



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 38028



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 38028



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34105)
2001/12/12



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 32827



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41611



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41611