Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent.

Prodr. Flor. Neomarch.: 315, 1804. Basionym: Lichen rufus Huds. - Fl. Angl.: 443, 1762.
Synonyms: Baeomyces byssoides; Baeomyces caesiopruinosus (Anzi) Jatta?; Baeomyces rufus f. rupestris Harm.; Baeomyces rupestris Pers.; Biatora byssoides (L.) Fr.; Lichen fungiformis Scop.; Rinodina humilis H. Magn.; Sphyridium byssoides (L.) Beltr.; Sphyridium fungiforme (Scop.) Flot.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Hafellner 1995, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2006c), Lomb (Dalle Vedove & al. 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, Morisi 2005), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Watson 2014). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi 2011, Brackel 2015), Marc (Brackel 2015), Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Catalano & al. 2016), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Brackel & Puntillo 2016).
Description: Primary thallus crustose, grey-green to greenish white, more rarely brownish, thick, continuous to areolate-subsquamulose, forming up to 20 cm wide patches, the areoles convex, contiguous, to 1 mm broad, with a warty to smooth cortex, esorediate or often powdery-sorediate, the soredia greenish grey; schizidia rare, <0.2 mm across. Apothecia frequent, without a thalline margin, with a red-brown, flat to convex disc, the margins often in-rolled, up to 2.5 mm across, single or coalescing, rarely sessile, usually brought on erect, subfruticose, smooth, flattened to subcylindrical, often longitudinally fissured, ecorticate or basally corticate, white stipes which are 2-6(-9) mm tall. Epithecium brownish, C+ red; hymenium colourless, 75-120 µm , K/I-; paraphyses simple to sparingly branched in upper part, slender, (1-)1.5-2 µm thick, the apical cell only slightly wider; hypothecium pale. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, thin-walled, the apex truncated, with a single functional wall layer, light brown, with a relatively undifferentiated, non-amyloid, K/I- tholus. Ascospores 1(-2)-celled, hyaline, fusiform, (7.5-)8-12(-14) x (2.5-)3-4(-5) µm. Pycnidia rare. Conidia bacilliform, 4-5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K+ yellow, C-, KC+ yellow, P+ orange-yellow, UV+ pale yellow. Chemistry: thallus with stictic acid (major), norstictic acid and an unidentified substance (traces); mature apothecia with gyrophoric and lecanoric acids.
Note: a holarctic early coloniser of acid soils with high clay content, also found on weathered siliceous rocks, often in rather disturbed sites such as along mountain trails, also within forests; the species is mostly sterile in upland areas. The var. callianthus (Lettau) Anders is known from the Austrian Alps.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather rare
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14271)
2001/12/09



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14271)
2001/12/09


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Paneveggio, Reg. Trentino-Alto Adige Prov. Trento, Italy.
2009



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[6983], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, auf Sandboden in Bachnähe, luftfeucht, lichtoffen, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. Schumm & Schwarz 24.04.2000, det. Schumm 2000


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Pontevedra


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Pontevedra


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Pontevedra


Helena Rodriguez
Spain


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA


Frey E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluß ded Gattung Cladonia) und Umbilicariaceae. In: Rabenhrst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 15: 1-208.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 14271



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 14271


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Author: Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/