Kuettlingeria erythrocarpa (Pers.) I.V. Frolov, Vondrák & Arup

in Frolov & al., J. Syst. Evol. 59, 3: 468, 2020. Basionym: Patellaria erythrocarpa Pers. - Ann. Wetter. Gesellsch. ges. Naturk., 2: 12, 1801.
Synonyms: Blastenia arenaria sensu A. Massal.; Blastenia ferruginea var. metabasis A. Massal.; Blastenia lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) A. Massal.; Callopisma arenarium auct.; Caloplaca arenaria auct. p.p. non (Pers.) Müll. Arg.; Caloplaca erythrocarpa (Pers.) Zwackh; Caloplaca erythrocarpa f. diffractoareolata B. de Lesd.; Caloplaca lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Flagey; Kuettlingeria lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Trevis.; Placodium lallavei (Clemente ex Ach.) Anzi
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 2000b, Nascimbene 2008c), TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem, Emil (Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Nimis & al. 1996, Bouvet 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2009, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Brackel 2020), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Monte & Ferrari 1996, Ottonello 1996, Schicchi & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Poli & al. 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Brackel 2008b, 2008c, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, chalk-white, up to 0.7 mm thick, of flattened, angular areoles, the marginal ones sometimes elongate, giving the thallus a subplacodioid appearance, forming well-delimited orbicular patches to c. 5 cm in diam., sometimes surrounded by a thin, dark prothallus. Cortex to 60 μm thick, with abundant small crystals; medulla white. Apothecia frequent, lecanorine/zeorine, developing in the centre of areoles and in the central part of thallus, 0.4-1.5(-2) mm across, immersed to subsessile, with a flat, dark red to rust-red disc, a rust-red to orange (paler than disc) proper margin, and a white thalline margin of variable thickness. Proper exciple orange in outer part, colourless within, the pigmented parts K+ red, C+ purple in section; epithecium orange, K+ red, C+ purple in section; hymenium colourless, 65-100 μm high; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched in upper part, not distinctly capitate; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-16(-18) x 6-9(-10) μm, the septum (3-)5-8 μm thick. Pycnidia common, immersed, appearing as dark dots. Conidia narrowly ellipsoid to bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C, KC-, P-; apothecia K+ red, C+ purple in section (both disc and proper margin). Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances; apothecia with chlorinated anthraquinones in both margin and disc: 7-chloroemodin (major), fragilin and emodin (minor), sometimes traces of parietin.
Note: a mainly Mediterranean species also occurring in warm habitats of the submediterranean belt found on limestone, dolomite, calciferous sandstone, much more rarely mortar and brick, on horizontal to weakly inclined faces wetted by rain, with optimum in natural habitats at low elevations.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
paras Circinaria calcarea when young

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: rare
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37173



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (7207)
2001/11/13



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Erice, dintorni della città
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Segesta, presso i templi
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Segesta, presso i templi
2008.04.05


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italia, M. Navegna, Appennino Centrale
2010


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italia, M. Navegna, Appennino Centrale
2010


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italia, M. Navegna, Appennino Centrale
2010


Manilio Prignano; Owner: Manilio Prignano
Italia, M. Navegna, Appennino Centrale
2010



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Vette Feltrine, Veneto, Italy



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12291], Griechenland, N-Samos, bei Manolates südlich von Agios Konstandinos, 37°47.185'N, 26°49.533'E, 341 m; halbschattige bis besonnte Terrassenmauern. Leg Schumm 02.05.2006, det. Schumm 2006.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13404], Griechenland, S-Kreta, Gebirgszug zwischen Pombia und Pigedakia, westl. des Gipfels Vigla, 34°59.880' N, 24°52.150' E, 420 m. Leg. F. Schumm & R. Düll, 16.10.2007, det. A. Aptroot 2016.



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13404], Griechenland, S-Kreta, Gebirgszug zwischen Pombia und Pigedakia, westl. des Gipfels Vigla, 34°59.880' N, 24°52.150' E, 420 m. Leg. F. Schumm & R. Düll, 16.10.2007, det. A. Aptroot 2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13572], Griechenland, S-Kreta, Asteroussia Berge, Blockhalde nordöstlich von Ethia in Richtung Keraies, 34°59.526' N, 25°12.693' E, 830 m. Leg. F. Schumm & R. Düll, 25.10.2007, det. A. Aptroot 2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13572], Griechenland, S-Kreta, Asteroussia Berge, Blockhalde nordöstlich von Ethia in Richtung Keraies, 34°59.526' N, 25°12.693' E, 830 m. Leg. F. Schumm & R. Düll, 25.10.2007, det. A. Aptroot 2016.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Canary Islands, Tenerife


Giulio Pandeli
Italy, Toscana


Giulio Pandeli
Italy, Toscana


Giulio Pandeli
Italy, Toscana


Giulio Pandeli
Italy, Toscana



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 37489



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13404], Griechenland, S-Kreta, Gebirgszug zwischen Pombia und Pigedakia, westl. des Gipfels Vigla, 34°59.880' N, 24°52.150' E, 420 m. Leg. F. Schumm & R. Düll, 16.10.2007, det. A. Aptroot 2016.



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 37489



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 37489



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
TSB 37489



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37173



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37489



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37173