Flavoplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Arup, Frödén & Søchting

Nord. J. Bot., 31: 44, 2013. Basionym: Verrucaria citrina Hoffm. - Deutschl. Fl.: 198, 1796.
Synonyms: Blastenia citrina (Hoffm.) B. de Lesd.; Callopisma citrinum (Hoffm.) A. Massal.; Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.; Lecanora citrina (Hoffm.) Ach.; Lecanora murorum var. citrina (Hoffm.) Rabenh.; Lichen citrinus (Hoffm.) Ach.; Parmelia parietina var. citrina (Hoffm.) Schaer.; Placodium citrinum (Hoffm.) Hepp; Pyrenodesmia citrina (Hoffm.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Nascimbene & Salvadori 2008, Nascimbene & al. 2009b), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1993, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, Nascimbene & Salvadori 2008), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Nascimbene 2005b, 2008b, Zarabska & al. 2009), Lomb (Florio & al. 2004, 2006, Rigamonti & al. 2007, 2008, Di Silvestro & al. 2009, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Alessio & al. 1995, Isocrono & al. 2003, Morando & al. 2014), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Revel & al. 2001), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Bouvet 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000, Roccardi 2006, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Bartoli 1997b, Bartoli & al. 1998, Ravera & al. 1999, Roccardi & Ricci 2006, Munzi & al. 2007, Pietrini & al. 2008, Ravera 2008b, Roccardi 2011, Genovesi & al. 2011), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Caporale & al. 2016), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2002, 2002b, Zedda & al. 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Neuwirth 2018). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Monte & Ferrari 1996, Ottonello 1996, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, 1998, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, Grillo & al. 2001, 2002, 2009, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Merlo 2004b, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Cataldo & Cannavò 2014).
Description: Thallus crustose, of scattered to continuous, 0.1-1(-1.5) mm wide areoles more or less dissolved into soredia, the esorediate parts flat to convex, pale greenish yellow to orange-yellow. Soredia (25-)30-60(-75) µm. Cortex poorly developed or indistinctly paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia adnate to sessile, zeorine, 0.3-1.5 mm across, with a slightly concave to convex, yellow to yellow-orange disc, a slightly raised or level proper margin and a crenulate-sorediate thalline margin. Proper exciple (10-)25-50(-75) µm thick, of irregularly radiating, thick-walled, rather short-celled hyphae; epithecium yellowish orange, inspersed with granules, K+ red; hymenium colourless, 70-80 µm high; paraphyses simple to sparingly branched in upper part, 2-2.5 µm thick at base, the upper cells swollen, to 7 µm thick; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, Teloschistes-type. Ascospores 1-septate, polarilocular, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 10-15 x (4-)5-7(-8) µm, the septum (2.5–)3-5(-5) µm thick. Pycnidia immersed, orange. Conidia bacilliform to broadly ellipsoid, 2.5-3.8 x 1-1.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and apothecia K+ dark red, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: thallus and apothecia with parietin (major), fallacinal, emodin, teloschistin and parietinic acid (minor), corresponding with chemosyndrome A of Søchting (1997),
Note: F. citrina is often claimed to be an almost cosmopolitan lichen. However, after the molecular revision of the entire complex by Vondrák & al. (2009), it seems that the species has a rather restricted distribution centred in central Europe, being largely substituted by other species in the Mediterranean Region. The species complex, which still needs a thorough revision in Italy, occurs on a wide variety of substrata, from asbestos-cement, concrete and mortar to basic siliceous rocks or even eutrophicated wood, is very tolerant to, and even favoured by eutrophication (e.g. urine-deposits), and is common also in urban areas and along the main highways. See also notes on F. arcis, F. austrocitrina, F. flavocitrina, F. communis, F. confusa, and F. limonia.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely common
Padanian area: extremely common
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29938)
2001/12/03



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26102)
2001/12/03



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Bosco della Stua, Lago di Sauris, 1000m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Bosco della Stua, Lago di Sauris, 1000m
09.09.2016


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/