Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue

Nouv. Arch. Mus., sér. 4, 1: 57, 1899. Basionym: Lichen vulpinus L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1155, 1753.
Synonyms: Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl.; Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach.; Parmelia vulpina (L.) Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach 2015), Ven (Tretiach 1993, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2008d), TAA (Tretiach 1993, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Kroken & Taylor 2001, Caniglia & al. 2002, Högberg & al. 2002, De Marco & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2008d, 2009, 2010, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Lang 2009, Brackel 2013, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Ament-Velásquez & al. 2021, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Tretiach 1993, Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Serio & al. 2001, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Ravera & al. 2016, Gheza 2019), Piem (Tretiach 1993, Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Triebel 1997, Isocrono & al. 2003, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Ravera & al. 2016), VA (Tretiach 1993, Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Revel & al. 2001, Bergamaschi & al. 2004, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Loppi 2014), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus fruticose, attached with a basal holdfast, bushy when young to subpendent when well-developed, bright lemon- to sulphur yellow, to 20 cm long (usually much less), irregularly branched. Main branches up to 4 mm wide, angular, often foveolate, secondary branches thinner, subulate, often forked. Cortex thin, paraplectenchymatous; medullary hyphae arranged in bundles. Isidia diffuse, granular-sorediose to cylindrical, generally dense, usually developing from cracks on the angles and ridges, where the cortex has degenerated. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine, with a brown disc and short marginal projections on the thalline margin. Asci 8-spored, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 5-8 x 4-5 µm. Pycnidia rare, slightly projecting, black. Conidia sublageniform, 8-9 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: cortex with vulpinic acid.
Note: a circumboreal-montane lichen growing on the bark of coniferous trees, mostly on Larix and Pinus cembra, more rarely on lignum, near treeline; common and locally abundant only in parts of the Alps with a continental climate, but exceptionally occurring also in the mountains of Calabria. See also comment on the genus.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (5256)
2002/02/24



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (5652)
2002/02/24
soredia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (37028)
2008.02.28



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB
2008.03.06



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (37028)
2008.02.28



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (37028)
2008.02.28


Jessica Bonazzi; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Veneto, Belluno, Casera Razzo, lariceta presso la malga, ca. 1700 m
2008.08.27


Jessica Bonazzi; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Veneto, Belluno, Casera Razzo, lariceta presso la malga, ca. 1700 m
2008.08.27


Jessica Bonazzi; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Veneto, Belluno, Casera Razzo, lariceta presso la malga, ca. 1700 m
2008.08.27


Jessica Bonazzi; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Veneto, Belluno, Casera Razzo, lariceta presso la malga, ca. 1700 m
2008.08.27


Jessica Bonazzi; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Veneto, Belluno, Casera Razzo, lariceta presso la malga, ca. 1700 m
2008.08.27


Giovanna Potenza; Owner: Giovanna Potenza


Paolo Fontanesi; Owner: Paolo Fontanesi
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Val di Genova, tra la Presanella e l'Adamello.
Herbarium: Forum Natura Mediterraneo
2010


Paolo Fontanesi; Owner: Paolo Fontanesi
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Val di Genova, tra la Presanella e l'Adamello.
Herbarium: Forum Natura Mediterraneo
2010



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Paneveggio, Reg. Trentino-Alto Adige Prov. Trento, Italy.
2009



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Stelvio National Park, Reg. Trentino-Alto Adige Prov. Trento, Italy.
07.2005



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Val Mazia
2017



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Sciliar/Schlern
2007


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Giulio Pandeli
Italy


Giulio Pandeli
Italy



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37039


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
Vulpinsäurekristall (rekristallisiert in einer Lösung aus Glyzerin und Eisessig ["GE"]; links: Differentialinterferenzkontrast, rechts: Polarisationslicht):


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
Vulpinsäurekristalle (rekristallisiert in einer Lösung aus Glyzerin und Eisessig ["GE"]; oben: Differentialinterferenzkontrast, unten: Polarisationslicht)


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
Vulpinsäurekristalle (rekristallisiert in einer Lösung aus Glyzerin und Eisessig ["GE"]; Differentialinterferenzkontrast):