Lethariella intricata (Moris) Krog

Norw. J. Bot., 23: 94, 1976. Basionym: Stereocaulon intricatum Moris - El. Stir. Sard., 3: 22, 1827.
Synonyms: Chlorea soleirolii var. arborea Jatta; Letharia soleirolii (Schaer.) Hue; Neuropogon arboricola (Jatta) Jatta; Neuropogon soleirolii (Schaer.) Jatta; Usnea arboricola Jatta; Usnea intricata (Moris) Th. Fr.; Usnea soleirolii (Schaer.) Jatta
Distribution: C - Tosc (Obermayer 1997, Ravera & al. 2010b), Laz (Ravera 2006), Mol (Ravera & al. 2010b), Sar (Obermayer 1997, Nöske 2000, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda 2002, Ravera & al. 2010b). S - Camp (Ravera & al. 2010b, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Thüs & Licht 2006), Bas (Obermayer 1997, Potenza 2006, Puntillo & al. 2009, Potenza & Fascetti 2012, Potenza & al. 2013, Ravera & al. 2021c), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Obermayer 1997, Potenza & al. 2013), Si (Merlo 2004, Brackel 2008b).
Description: Thallus fruticose, attached with a basal holdfast, shrubby to subpendoulous, up to 15 cm long, rather rigid but not fragile, irregularly branched, isidiate. Branches pale grey in basal parts, dark grey in upper parts, terete, with a more or less scrobiculate surface. Isidia usually abundant, irregularly dispersed, at first verruciform, later cylindrical to branched-coralloid, concolorous with the branches or sometimes darkened at tips. Cortex paraplectenchymatous, 30-40 µm thick; medulla dense, forming a hollow axis in the older part of the branches, the cavity with a few hyphal strands. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine, mostly lateral, strongly constricted at base and often subpedicellate, with a brown to finally black disc and a smooth to scrobiculate-verrucose, sometimes isidiate thalline margin. Epithecium brownish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless, Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 7-9 x 2-3 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: cortex with atranorin; medulla with merochlorophaeic and 4-O-methylcryptochlorophaeic acids.
Note: this is probably an old, relict Mediterranean species found on siliceous rocks and acid bark (e.g. of old Pinus leucodermis near treeline in the southern Apennines). It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Near-threatened” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: bark and rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Giovanna Potenza; Owner: Giovanna Potenza
Italy



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10673)
2002/02/24



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10673)
2001/11/26
detail of isidia


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro, Arzachena
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro, Arzachena
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro, Arzachena
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, Oristano, Luogosanto, Gallura
2010


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, Oristano, Luogosanto, Gallura
2010



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Giovanna Potenza; Owner: Giovanna Potenza
Italy


Caterina Azara; Owner: Caterina Azara
Italy, Sardegna, M. Moro
2010



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Atlantic Coast



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37530



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37530



Pier Luigi Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38855


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Sonia Ravera
Italy, Appennino Lucano


Giovanna Potenza
Italy, 2003 Loc Cerro Falcone (Basilicata)


Giovanna Potenza
Italy, 2003 Loc Cerro Falcone (Basilicata)