Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 441, 1810. Basionym: Lichen divaricatus L. - Syst. Nat., ed. 12., 2: 713, 1767.
Synonyms: Evernia perfragilis Llano?; Letharia divaricata (L.) Hue
Distribution: N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene 2011, Ravera & al. 2022), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Gottardini & al. 2004, Thell & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Lang 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Gheza 2019b), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2003, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Matteucci & al. 2008, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc (Stofer 2006), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Puntillo & al. 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus fruticose, attached with a basal holdfast, pendulous, up to 35 cm long, not dorsiventral, pale greyish green to yellowish green on all sides, richly but irregularly branched, with mostly obtuse axils, the main branches mostly parallel, sometimes entangled, subterete to angular, very soft, 0.5-1(-2.5) mm wide, smooth or with shallow longitudinal grooves, with scattered side branches, the tips sometimes darkened, subulate or abruptly acuminate. Cortex matt, often degenerating in places, frequently cracking transversely in old specimens, exposing the medulla; medulla loose, more or less arachnoid but often coherent as a soft central strand. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine, sessile, lateral on the main branches, 2-6 mm across, with a brown, flat disc and a thin, wrinkled thalline margin. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 6-8 x 4-5(-8) µm. Pycnidia very rare, laminal or terminal on short branches, immersed, blackish around the ostiole. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC- or KC+ yellowish, P-; medulla K-, KC-, P-, UV+ ice-blue. Chemistry: cortex with usnic acid; medulla with divaricatic acid.
Note: a cool-temperate to southern boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on twigs of coniferous and deciduous trees in semi-natural montane to subalpine forests with frequent fog; most frequent in the Alps, rarer in southern Italy, with optimum in beech-fir forests. Albeit very rarely, the species also occurs on soil on windy ridges with frequent fog.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by thallus fragmentation

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26706)
2001/12/12
broken branch showing the soft medullary strand



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26706)
2001/12/12


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV); Owner: Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Danta, Italy
2006



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[827], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, am Ladenberg, ca. 1620 m. Leg. Schumm 24.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969. TLC: p063/6: divaricatic acid; mit Apothecien !.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[827], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, am Ladenberg, ca. 1620 m. Leg. Schumm 24.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969. TLC: p063/6: divaricatic acid; mit Apothecien !.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[827], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, am Ladenberg, ca. 1620 m. Leg. Schumm 24.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969. TLC: p063/6: divaricatic acid; mit Apothecien !.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[827], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, am Ladenberg, ca. 1620 m. Leg. Schumm 24.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969. TLC: p063/6: divaricatic acid; mit Apothecien !.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[827], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, am Ladenberg, ca. 1620 m. Leg. Schumm 24.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969. TLC: p063/6: divaricatic acid; mit Apothecien !.


Leif Stridvall


Leif Stridvall


Leif Stridvall



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 26706



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 37297


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/