Gyrographa gyrocarpa (Flot.) Ertz & Tehler

in Ertz & al., Fungal Divers., 70: 42, 2014. Basionym: Opegrapha gyrocarpa Flot. - Flora, 1825: 345, 1825.
Synonyms: Opegrapha gyrocarpa var. arenaria Körb.; Opegrapha rupestris var. arenaria (Körb.) Stein; Opegrapha rupestris var. schisticola Eitner; Opegrapha saxicola var. gyrocarpa (Flot.) Stizenb.; Opegrapha saxicola var. schisticola (Eitner) Zahlbr.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene 2006c), Lomb, Piem (TSB 33728), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (TSB 31061). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Camp, Cal.
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, ecorticate, continuous to usually cracked, in different shades of brown, from orange-brown to rust-brown and dark brown, often with paler, pinkish areas, becoming yellowish brown in the herbarium, forming 1-3 cm wide patches, often delimited from adjacent thalli by a black prothalline line, and forming mosaics on the rock. Soralia irregular, 0.4-1(-3) mm wide, ochre-yellow to grey-pinkish, often confluent and generating a thick verrucose layer. Apothecia rare, lirelliform, elliptical to round or strongly irregular in outline, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm long/wide, black, with a more or less gyrose disc and a shiny black, thick, K+ olive-green exciple. Epithecium pale; hymenium colourless, 80-120 µm high, hemiamyloid; paraphysoids branched and anastomosing, with slightly enlarged apical cells; hypothecium black, thick, carbonised. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate. Ascospores 3-septate, hyaline, fusiform to slightly clavate, straight, (12-)17-25(-30) x 3-6 µm, without a gelatinous sheath. Pycnidia black. Conidia straight, bacilliform, 4-6 x 0.5-1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K+ yellow to yellow-orange; soralia K- or K+ greenish yellow, C+ red, KC+ fleeting red, P-, UV+ glaucous or pale yellow. Chemistry: gyrophoric acid, schizopeltic acid, unidentified xanthone and accessory substances.
Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of siliceous rocks, often within forests in cold-humid situations, more rarely on subacid bark.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33728)
2001/12/18
mosaic of young thalli



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33728)
2001/12/18
sterile thallus



Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
2018


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41443



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41446



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41446


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


LITERATURE


Ertz, D./ Tehler, A./ Irestedt, M./ Frisch, A./ Thor, G./ van den Boom, P. (2015) A large-scale phylogenetic revision of Roccellaceae (Arthoniales) reveals eight new genera. Fungal Diversity

Brinker, S.R. (2020) Contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. Opuscula Philolichenum https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF/R42285.pdf