Lecanora epanora (Ach.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 377, 1810. Basionym: Lichen epanorus Ach. - Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 39, 1799.
Synonyms: Parmelia epanora (Ach.) Ach.; Patellaria epanora (Ach.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, of flattened to usually strongly convex-verrucose, aggregated or dispersed, yellow to greenish-yellow, sometimes blackish green areoles, rarely delimited by a thin black prothallus. Areoles more or less covered with pale green to lemon-yellow soredia arranged in globose, convex, finally confluent soralia arising in the center. Apothecia rare, lecanorine, sessile, 0.5-2 mm across, with a concave to slightly convex, brownish-yellow disc, and a flexuose, sometimes sorediate, concolorous thalline margin. Epithecium yellowish to brownish, with yellowish granules insoluble in K; hymenium colourless, 65-85 µm high; paraphyses branched and anastomosed, 1-2 µm thick at base, the apical cells not or only slightly swollen; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, 8-13 x 5-6.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV+ bright orange. Chemistry: epanorin, rhizocarpic acid, zeorin.
Note: a holarctic early coloniser of steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of metal-rich metamorphic rocks, mostly found in upland areas; probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain
Species of metal-rich rocks
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php . Courtesy: A. Stridvall

Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Canada

P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 13767


Coker, JN (1950) The Properties of Some Lichen and Fungus pigments.

Frank, RL/ Cohen, SM/ Coker, JN (1950) The structures and syntheses of rhizocarpic acid and epanorin. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc.

Talbot, SS/ Talbot, SL/ Thomson, JW (1992) Lichens of Tuxedni Wilderness Area, Alaska. The Bryologist

Leśniański, G.Z. (2008) Lichens from pyrite Schist Mines in the Wielka Kopa Massif (Rudawy Janowickie, Western Sudety Mountains). Ecological Questions

Lendemer, J. C. (2012) Contributions to the lichen flora of Pennsylvania. Further new and interesting reports of lichens and lichenicolous fungi, part 2. Evansia

Lewis, C.J./ Brinker, S.R. (2017) Notes on new and interesting lichens from Ontario, Canada - III. Opuscula Philolichenum https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF/R38787.pdf

Brinker, S.R. (2020) Contributions to the Ontario flora of lichens and allied fungi, with emphasis on the Great Lakes Basin. Opuscula Philolichenum https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF/R42285.pdf