Megalaria grossa (Nyl.) Hafellner

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 302, 1984. Basionym: Lecidea grossa Pers. ex Nyl. - Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 21: 385, 1856.
Synonyms: Catillaria grossa (Nyl.) Körb.; Catillaria leucoplaca auct. non (DC.) A. Massal.; Catillaria premnea auct. p.p.; Catinaria grossa (Nyl.) Vain.; Catinaria leucoplaca auct. non (DC.) Zahlbr.; Lecidea premnea Fr. non Ach.
Distribution: N - Ven, Lomb, Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc, Marc, Umb (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Zedda 2002, 2002b, Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, smooth, rimose or warty, cream-coloured, greenish white or whitish grey, ecorticate, without a distinct prothallus. Apothecia lecideine, black, 0.4-1.5(-2.5) mm across, strongly constricted at base, with a concave to slightly convex, matt, epruinose, minutely roughened disc, and a thick, shiny, persistent or finally excluded proper margin. Proper exciple 80-160 μm thick laterally, layered, with a blue-green or emerald green inner and outer zone, K+ intensifying greenish, N+ purple-red, separated by a median, colourless zone inspersed with oil droplets, composed of radiating, coherent hyphae; epithecium blue-black, bluish green or diffuse olive, up to 10 μm high, K+ intensifiying green, N+ purple-red; hymenium colourless or partly pale reddish brown, (90-)120-140(-160) μm high, not inspersed with oil droplets, I+ pale blue; paraphyses lax in K, mostly simple, (1-)1.5(-2) μm thick at mid-level, the apical cells 3-4 μm wide; hypothecium not inspersed, reddish brown to greenish black, K+ reddish violet. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a well-developed amyloid tholus penetrated entirely by a narrow, cylindrical axial mass, bordered by a narrow, more intensely amyloid zone, the ocular chamber poorly developed, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-septate, often slightly constricted at septum, hyaline, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, 20-34(-38) x 10-16 μm, the wall 1-2 μm thick. Pycnidia small, black, immersed. Conidia 3-4 x 1.5-2 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid (according to some authors trentepohlioid, but with low amount of orange pigments), the cells 5-13 μm in diam. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances.
Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen found on base-rich bark of deciduous trees, especially of Acer and Fraxinus, locally still abundant in very humid forests of southern Italy but probably extinct in northern Italy. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Near-threatened” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: ITALIC - Dyades Project - Dept. of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sardinia
2014



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (5657)
2001/11/26



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11418], Portugal, Madeira, etwas oberhalb von Ribeiro Frio, Lorbeerwaldzone, 32°44.020' N, 16°53.222' W, 930 m. Leg Schumm 27.12.2003, det Schumm 01.2004


LITERATURE


Malme,G O A (1912) Catillaria grossa (Pers.) Koerb. i Jamtland. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift\Svensk Bot. Tidskr.

Du Rietz,G E (1914) Nagra nordliga lokaler for Catillaria premnea Karb. (Einige nordliche Standorte der C. p.). Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift\Svensk Bot. Tidskr.

Vezda, A (1975) Lichenes Selecti Exsiccati, Editi ab Instituto Botanico Academiae Scientiarum Cechoslovacae, Pruhonice prope Pragam. Fasc. LIV (no. 1326-1350). XI..

Turk, R (1979) Uber einige interessante Flechtenfunde im sudlichen Oberosterreich. Herzogia https://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/herzogia/detail/5/101552/Uber_einige_interessante_Flechtenfunde_im_sudlichen_Oberosterreich

Hafellner, J (1984) Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. Beitrage zur Lichenologie. Festscrift J. Poelt https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF/R7251.pdf

Tschermak-Woess, E (1984) Uber die weite Verbreitung lichenisierter Sippen von Dictyochloropsis und die systematische Stellung von Myrmecia reticulata (Chlorophyta). Plant Systematics and Evolution

Aptroot, A/ Diederich, P/ Serusiaux, E/ Sipman, HJM (1997) Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi from New Guinea.

Juriado, I/ Randlane, T/ Saag, L (2002) New Estonian records - Lichens. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica http://www.ut.ee/ial5/fce/FCE_eLibrary/FCEeBooks/FCE39eBook.pdf

L. Spier, K. van Dort and O. Fritz (2008) A contribution to the lichen mycota of old beech forests in Bulgaria. Mycologia Balcanica https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548665

Fryday, A. M./ D. O. Ovstedal (2012) New species, combinations and records of lichenized fungi from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Lichenologist https://nhm2.uio.no/botanisk/lav/RLL/PDF/R33888.pdf

Svoboda, D./ Bouda, F./ Maliček, J./ Hafellner, J. (2012) A contribution to the knowledge of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Albania. Herzogia https://bioone.org/journals/Herzogia/volume-25/issue-2/heia.25.2.2010.146/A-Contribution-to-the-Knowledge-of-Lichenized-and-Lichenicolous-Fungi/10.13158/heia.25.2.2010.146.full

Aptroot, A./ Moon, K.H. (2014) 114 New Reports of Microlichens from Korea, Including the Description of Five New Species, Show that the Microlichen Flora is Predominantly Eurasian. Herzogia

Kantvilas, G. (2016) Further observations on the lichen genus Megalaria in Tasmania: Some species with blue-green apothecial pigments [Weitere beobachtungen an der flechtengattung Megalaria in Tasmanien: Einige arten mit blaugrunen apothecienpigmenten]. Herzogia