Endocarpon simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl.

in Hue, Rev. Bot. Bull. Mens,. 6: 104, 1888.. Basionym: Verrucaria simplicata Nyl. - Flora, Regensburg, 67: 390, 1884.
Description: Thallus squamulose, the squamules pale to dark brown, scattered or contiguous, 1.5-6(-8) mm wide, 0.15-0.4 mm thick, rounded to deeply lobate, flat and fully adnate or concave with upturned, often undulate, slightly thickned and black-rimmed margins; lower surface brown-black, attached by conspicuous, up to 10 mm long, black, branched rhizines, without rhizohyphae. Upper cortex 30-50 µm thick, of angular, isodiametric or anticlinally slightly elongated cells, overlain by a 10-30 µm thick epinecral layer; medulla white, of interwoven hyphae; algal layer c. 50-80 µm thick, the algal cells arranged in vertical columns; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous, brown-black, 25-40(-50) µm thick. Perithecia black, broadly pyriform, immersed, up to 0.4 mm across (in section). Exciple black, often paler near the ostiole; paraphyses absent, substituted by 40-70 µm long periphyses; hymenium colourless, I+ brown-red; hymenial algae globose, 3-4 μm wide or ellipsoid and up to 5 x 3 μm. Asci 1-spored, clavate to cylindrical-clavate, bi- and fissitunicate, thin-walled, the wall non-amyloid. Ascospores muriform, yellowish brown to brown, elongate-ellipsoid or narrowly clavate, (47-)65-90(-110) x 23-36 µm. Pycnidia immersed, up to 0.2 mm across. Conidia bacilliform, 3-4.5 x c. 0.8 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid (Stichococcus, present in both thallus and hymenium). Spot tests: thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a widespread terricolous species also known from the Southern Hemisphere, growing on clay soils in opening of Mediterranean garrigue vegetation. Reported from Southern France, to be looked for in Italy.
Growth form: Squamulose
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: extremely rare

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

André Aptroot - Source: http://www.tropicallichens.net/2000.html

André Aptroot - Source: http://www.tropicallichens.net/2000.html


McCarthy, PM (1991) The lichen genus Endocarpon Hedwig in Australia. Lichenologist

McCarthy, PM (1992) Additional lichen records from New Zealand. 7. Australasian Lichenological Newsletter

Nash, TH, III/ Ryan, BD/ Davis, WC/ Breuss, O/ Hafellner, J/ Lumbsch, HT/ Tibell, L/ Feuerer, T (1998) Additions to the lichen flora of Arizona IV. The Bryologist

Flakus, A./ Wilk, K. (2006) Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory