Distribution: C - Laz (Ravera 2002b), Sar (Sundin 1999, Zedda 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Ravera & al. 2018), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).
Description: Thallus crustose, probably not lichenized, mostly endosubstratic and inapparent, or forming grey-white patches. Apothecia arthonioid, black but often grey-pruinose, round to slightly ellipsoid, 0.2-0.5 µm across, immersed to erumpent, up to 100 µm tall. Proper exciple poorly developed; epithecium reddish brown, 10-20 µm high; hymenium colourless, 30-60 µm high, with granules, I+ red, K/I+ blue; paraphysoids 1-1.5 µm thick; hypothecium colourless, 5-10 µm high. Asci 8-spored, globose to broadly clavate, semi-fissitunicate, with a large apical dome, a distinct ocular chamber, and an inconspicuous ring-structure in tholus, Arthonia-type. Ascospores 1-septate, not constricted at septum, hyaline, broadly ovoid, 17-25(-30) x 8-12 µm, without an epispore. Pycnidia up to 0.1 mm wide. Conidia bacilliform, 3-5 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont probably absent. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances.
Note: a Mediterranean-Atlantic epiphytic species restricted to coastal situations with humid maritime winds, generally on Juniperus, but also on Olea and Quercus ilex. Perhaps non-lichenised. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Vulnerable” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)