Bacidina phacodes (Körb.) Vězda

Folia Geobot. Phytotaxon., 25: 432, 1991. Basionym: Bacidia phacodes Körb. - Parerga Lichenol.: 130, 1860.
Synonyms: Bacidia albescens (Stizenb.) Bausch; Bacidia chlorotica (Nyl.) Sandst. non sensu Th. Fr.; Lecidea chlorotica (Rostr.) Hue
Distribution: N - Frl (TSB 2798), TAA (Nascimbene 2014, Nimis & al. 2015), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997), Sar (Llop 2002, Zedda 2002, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2004), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza & al. 2010), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995).
Description: Thallus crustose, white to grey-green, thin to irregularly warted or scurfy, but without goniocysts. Apothecia biatorine, 0.2-0.5 mm across, sessile, often confluent and appearing tuberculate, whitish, cream-coloured to pale orange-brown when dry, translucent when wet, with a flat to strongly convex disc, and a usually paler, soon excluded proper margin. Proper exciple colourless, of radiating hyphae; epithecium colourless or pale brownish yellow, scarcely differentiated from the hymenium; hymenium mostly colourless, 35-50 μm high, I+ blue, then reddish brown; paraphyses simple, 1-1.5 μm thick at mid-level, the apical cells sometimes clavate and to 3 μm wide; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, approaching the Bacidia-type, but the ocular chamber wider, and the axial body never penetrating through the entire d-layer, surrounded by a narrow, darker amyloid layer. Ascospores 3-7-septate, hyaline, acicular but often gradually tapering at one end, often curved, (20-)25-35(-45) x 1.5-2 μm. Pycnidia rather rare, immersed, the walls colourless. Conidia thread-like, 3-7-septate, more or less straight, (24-)28-50(-60) x 1-1.5(-2) μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid, the cells 7-10 μm in diam. Spot tests: thallus and apothecia K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: no lichen substances in thallus.
Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical lichen found on bark of broad-leaved trees, more rarely on rock, often on dry undersides of thick branches of ancient trees; in the Mediterranean belt confined to humid evergreen forests, sometimes on silicicolous mosses. Bacidia punica could prove to be a synonym of this species (Ekman in litt.).
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


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Poleotolerance:

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Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13625], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, südwestlich von Adelberg nahe dem Herrenbachstausee, Buhwiesenweg, an Laubbaum im Mischwald, ca. 48°44'N, 9°33'E, 412 m, ZK 7223. Leg. Schumm 08.02.2008, det. Schumm 2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13625], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, südwestlich von Adelberg nahe dem Herrenbachstausee, Buhwiesenweg, an Laubbaum im Mischwald, ca. 48°44'N, 9°33'E, 412 m, ZK 7223. Leg. Schumm 08.02.2008, det. Schumm 2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13625], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, südwestlich von Adelberg nahe dem Herrenbachstausee, Buhwiesenweg, an Laubbaum im Mischwald, ca. 48°44'N, 9°33'E, 412 m, ZK 7223. Leg. Schumm 08.02.2008, det. Schumm 2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13625], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, südwestlich von Adelberg nahe dem Herrenbachstausee, Buhwiesenweg, an Laubbaum im Mischwald, ca. 48°44'N, 9°33'E, 412 m, ZK 7223. Leg. Schumm 08.02.2008, det. Schumm 2008



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[13625], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, südwestlich von Adelberg nahe dem Herrenbachstausee, Buhwiesenweg, an Laubbaum im Mischwald, ca. 48°44'N, 9°33'E, 412 m, ZK 7223. Leg. Schumm 08.02.2008, det. Schumm 2008



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20568], U.S.A. California, Monterey County, on Umbellularia californica, floor of canyon at Big Sur. Leg. W. A. Weber & R. Santesson, 2.4.1966. LICHENES EXSICCATI DISTRIBUTED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MUSEUM, BOULDER NO. 182 [as Bacidia albescens (Arn.) Zwackh.]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[20568], U.S.A. California, Monterey County, on Umbellularia californica, floor of canyon at Big Sur. Leg. W. A. Weber & R. Santesson, 2.4.1966. LICHENES EXSICCATI DISTRIBUTED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MUSEUM, BOULDER NO. 182 [as Bacidia albescens (Arn.) Zwackh.]