Calicium viride Pers.

Ann. Bot. (Usteri), 7: 20, 1794.
Synonyms: Calicium baliolum Ach.; Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach.; Calicium lygodes (Ach.) Ach.; Calicium peltatum Ach.; Calicium proboscidale Ach.; Calicium trachelinum var. epiphloeum Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl (Stofer 2006, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2008c, 2013b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Nascimbene 2011), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Gottardini & al. 2004, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, Stofer 2006, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2009, 2010, 2014, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Watson 2014, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Emil (Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1997b, Putortì & al. 1999, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Laz (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Sar (Zedda 1995, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Bas (Potenza 2006, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, well-developed, episubstratic, granular to minutely verrucose, bright green, rarely endosubstratic and poorly visible. Apothecia stalked, pin-like, black or sometimes with a brown pruina on the lower side of the capitulum. Stalk black, epruinose or brown-pruinose in uppermost part, (0.6-)1-2.2 mm high, the central part of sclerotized, dark, irregularly interwoven to periclinally arranged hyphae, the outer part slightly paler and often with a translucent, non-amyloid, gelatinous coat. Capitulum lenticular, 0.4-0.7 mm across, with a well-developed, cup-shaped exciple of anticlinally arranged cells; mazaedium well developed, black; hypothecium blackish brown, with a convex upper surface. Asci clavate, formed singly, dissolving early, with biseriately arranged ascospores. Ascospores 1-septate, usually restricted at septum, dark brown, ellipsoid. 11-14 x 6-7 µm, with a thick, ornamented wall, the ornamentation first of spirally arranged ridges, later irregularly cracked-areolate. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-; brown pruina K+ red (needle-like crystals); ascomata I- in all parts. Chemistry: thallus with rhizocarpic acid and epanorin.
Note: a holarctic, temperate to boreal-montane lichen found on Abies and Picea, but also on the rough bark of old oaks in humid areas; certainly ranging throughout the Alps, rarer in the Apenninnes.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29267)
2001/12/09



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29267)
2001/12/09


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10



E. Pittao; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20749)
2008.03.10


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 43698