Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau

Hedwigia, 52: 196, 1912. Basionym: Lichen xanthostigmus Pers. ex Ach. - Lichenogr. Univ.: 403, 1810.
Synonyms: Candelariella vitellina var. xanthostigma (Ach.) Elenkin; Lecanora vitellina var. xanthostigma (Ach.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Castello & Skert 2005), Ven (Nimis & al. 1996c, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000c Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, Nascimbene & al. 2007, 2008e, 2012, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010, Brackel 2013), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993, Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006c, 2008b, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2003, 2007b, 2014, 2015, Gottardini & al. 2004, Stofer 2006, Cristofolini & al. 2008, Zarabska & al. 2009, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Grieco & Groppali 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Anderi & al. 2005, Furlanetto 2010, Gheza & al. 2015), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Morisi & Sereno 1995, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Griselli & al. 2003, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2005b, 2006, 2007, 2009, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Maffei 1996, 2001, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Sallese 2003, Marconi & al. 2006, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Cioffi 2009, Benesperi 2009, Brackel 2015, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2003, 2004, 2004c, 2006, Loppi 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Monaci & al. 1997, Putortì & al. 1998, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Benesperi 2000a, 2011, Bettini 2001, Del Guasta 2001, Paoli & Loppi 2001, 2008, Loppi & Corsini 2003, Frati & al. 2006b, 2008, Benesperi & al. 2007, 2013, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012, 2012b, 2013, 2015d, Nascimbene & al. 2015, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Brackel 2015, Pieri & al. 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2012, Brackel 2015), Laz (Ravera 2002, 2008b, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Stofer 2006, Munzi & al. 2007, Zucconi & al. 2013, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Brackel 2015), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2015, Caporale & al. 2016, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Paoli & al. 2011, 2015, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Brackel 2020), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002b, Zedda & al. 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, 2011, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2013, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Paoli & al. 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Falco Scampatelli 2005, Grillo & Cataldo 2008, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, of scattered to crowded, bright yellow, smooth, mostly round and convex, 0.04-0.2 mm wide, corticate granules. Apothecia rather frequent, yellow, lecanorine, 0.2-0.9 mm across, with an initially entire, later granular, raised to finally excluded margin and a darker yellow, flat to finally convex disc. Epithecium yellow-brown; hymenium colourless, 55-70 µm tall; paraphyses simple, cylindrical or somewhat swollen at apex, the tips to 3 µm wide; hypothecium colourless. Asci 16-24-spored, clavate, with an apical dome which is I+ blue only in the internal, lower part, interrupted in the centre by a a paler blue strip, Candelaria-type. Ascospores simple to 1-septate, hyaline, ovoid to oblong, 7.5-12 x 3.5-5 µm. Pycnidia common, appearing as darker yellow granules. Conidia hyaline, ellipsoid to oblong, 2.5-3.5 x 1.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K- or K+ faintly orange, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: calycin, pulvinic acid, pulvinic dilactone and vulpinic acid.
Note: a mild-temperate to cool-temperate, perhaps holarctic species found on bark of more or less isolated trees, especially oaks, but also on conifers, much more rarely on lignum, with optimum in the deciduous forest belts.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24328



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14979)
2002/05/13



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Slovenia, Lipica/Lipizza; altitude: 2
2008.02.21



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (24328)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (24328)
2008.03.03



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (24328)
2008.03.03


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (14979)
2001/11/19