Catapyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 325, 1855. Basionym: Endocarpon cinereum Pers. - Ann. Bot. (Usteri), 1: 28, 1794.
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr.; Dermatocarpon hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. non auct.; Dermatocarpon tephroides (Ach.) W. Mann; Endocarpon hepaticum Ach. non auct.; Endopyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Oxner; Involucrocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Servít; Sagedia cinerea (Pers.) Fr.; Verrucaria polythecia Ach.; Verrucaria tephroides (Ach.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, Nascimbene 2008b), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Morisi 2005), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Matteucci & al. 2015c), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Sar. S - Camp (Ricciardi & al. 2000), Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2005, 2006).
Description: Thallus squamulose to subcrustose, brownish grey, often faintly to heavily grey-pruinose especially toward the centre, and darker toward the margin, thin. Squamules (0.5-)1-3 mm broad, finely divided-lobulate, appressed to the substratum, contiguous, very rarely somewhat overlapping, forming a subcrustose thallus developing on a dark prothallus; edge of squamules darker than the surface. Lower surface dark, attached by dark rhizohyphae which are (3.5-)4-4.5(-5) µm thick. Upper cortex thin, paraplectenchymatous, poorly delimited from the algal layer; medulla of spherical hyphae; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous, of polygonal cells in 2-3 layers. Perithecia numerous, laminal, globose, half immersed, not flattened, 0.2-0.3 mm across, without involucrellum. Paraphyses absent, substituted by periphyses; perithecial wall initially pale, then darkening throughout. Asci unitunicate, clavate, thin-walled, not or only slightly thickened at the apex, without ocular chamber, the wall I-. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, clavate, thin-walled, 14–24 × 6–9 µm, biseriately arranged in the asci. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a boreal-montane to arctic-alpine, circumpolar species occurring also in more southern mountains on siliceous, base-rich soil with mica, or amongst terricolous bryophytes, usually near or above treeline. Some records from low elevations in Sicily appear as dubious to me.
Growth form: Squamulose
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: common
Subalpine belt: very common
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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5

Solar irradiation:

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5

Aridity:

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5

Eutrophication:

(info)

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Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 34446



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34446)
2002/01/15



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36814)
2008.02.23



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41566



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38709



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38709



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38709



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38709