Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.

Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., 34: 515, 1968. Basionym: Parmelia olivetorum Nyl. - Not. Sällsk. Fauna Fl. Fenn. Förh., n. ser., 5: 180, 1866.
Synonyms: Parmelia cetrarioides var. rubescens (Th. Fr.) Du Rietz; Parmelia olivaria f. subvenosa Gyeln.; Parmelia rubescens (Th. Fr.) Vain.; Pseudoparmelia aradensis Gyeln.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007, 2009c, 2010b, 2013b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Brackel 2013), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2008b, Stofer 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, Lang 2009, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb, Piem (Griselli & al. 2003, Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Brunialti & al. 2001). C - Tosc (Brackel 2015), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Stofer 2006, Gheza & al. 2021). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006).
Description: Thallus foliose, broad-lobed, loosely attached, forming wide-spreading, usually orbicular patches 6-20(-40) cm across. Lobes broad and rotund, (0.5-)1-1.5(-2) cm wide, with raised, wavy margins, greenish grey (sometimes tinged brown), with punctiform pseudocyphellae on upper surface, which are rather small and usually not raised, often concentrated in the submarginal parts of lobes; pseudocyphellae on the lower surface not developed, or appearing as very small white dots. Soralia primarily marginal, elongated, usually smooth, with fine to rather coarse soredia. Medulla white. Lower surface black, rather regularly ridged, with scattered, simple, black rhizines and a brown, rhizine-free zone along the margin. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine. Asci 8-spored, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-15 x 7-10 µm. Pycnidia: unknown. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex K+ (weakly) yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla and soralia K+ yellow, C+ strongly blood-red, KC+ reddish, P-, UV-. Chemistry: cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin (in lower amounts than in soralia); soralia (and medulla) with atranorin, olivetoric acid, anziaic acid, and 4-O-demethylmicrophyllinic acid, sometimes with a fatty acid.
Note: a species with the olivetoric acid syndrome, found on bark of broad-leaved trees and on epiphytic, more rarely silicicolous mosses in humid, old forests, locally still locally abundant in montane Abies-Fagus forests, especially in the eastern Alps. Here the species, which is certainly widespread in Italy, is still treated in a broad sense: several records before 2007 could refer to the other species of the complex. The species was included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Near-threatened” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


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Poleotolerance:

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P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29405)
2001/12/09
soralia



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (29405)
2001/12/09



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, UD, Comune di Sauris, Bosco della Stua presso il Lago
2008.26.08



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009