Chaenotheca ferruginea (Sm.) Mig.

Kryptogamenfl. Deutschl., Deutsch-Österr., Schweiz, 4, Flechten, 2: 479, 1931. Basionym: Calicium ferrugineum Turner ex Sm. in Smith & Sowerby - Engl. Bot., 35: 2473, 1812.
Synonyms: Calicium melanophaeum Ach.; Calicium roscidum (Ach.) Flörke var. pinastri Ach.; Chaenotheca melanophaea (Ach.) Zwackh; Cyphelium melanophaeum (Ach.) Körb.; Cyphelium melanophaeum var. ferrugineum (Sm.) A. Massal.; Cyphelium melanophaeum var. vulgare (Schaer.) Körb.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2013b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001, Tretiach & al. 2008), VA (Puntillo & Puntillo 2018), Lig (Puntillo & Puntillo 2009). C - Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Umb (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Laz (Ravera 2001, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009), Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011). S - Bas (Puntillo & al. 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2009).
Description: Thallus crustose, ecorticate, granular-verrucose, pale whitish grey to pale green, often with yellow-orange to rusty red patches which may extend over most of the thallus, rarely immersed. Apothecia rather frequent, on long stalks, pin-like, 0.4-2 mm tall, 5-15 times as long as width of stalk; stalk 70-150 µm diam., shiny, black, epruinose; capitulum broadly to narrowly obconical. True exciple well-developed, epruinose. Maezedium pale to dark brown, often with a yellow tinge. Asci formed in chains, disintegrating early, producing a mass of spores (maezedium) which accumulates on the surface of the apothecia. Ascospores 1-celled, dark brown, uni- to biseriate, globose, 5.5-7.5 μm diam., thick-walled, coarsely and irregularly fissured at maturity. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC, P-, except the pigmented parts, which react K+ deep red; ascospore mass with a yellowish, K+ red pigment. Chemistry: a quinoid pigment.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumboreal species found on acid bark, especially of very old oaks, Castanea and conifers, on faces protected from rain, sometimes on decorticated stumps and even charred wood, reported as tolerant of air pollution and expanding in northern Europe, but rare and bound to natural habitats throughout Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Subcontinental: restricted to areas with a dry-subcontinental climate (e.g. dry Alpine valleys, parts of Mediterranean Italy)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsior beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (11503)
2001/12/05


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Paneveggio, Trentino, Italy



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34867)
2002/02/17



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsior beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[4540], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, an Picea excelsa beim Wasserfall, ca. 360 m. Leg. Schumm 23.05.1993


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37227



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37227



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37228



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41903



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41905



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41905



Domenico Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0



Domenico Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0