Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R. Laundon

Lichenologist, 13: 110, 1981. Basionym: Byssus candelaris L. - Sp. Pl., 2: 1169, 1753.
Synonyms: Chaenotheca trichialis f. candelaris Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Crocynia flava auct.; Crocynia flavissima B. de Lesd.; Lepra candelaris auct. p.p.; Lepra citrina auct. ital. p.p.; Lepra flava auct. ital. p.p.; Lepraria candelaris (L.) Fr.; Lepraria citrina auct. p.p.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2008c, 2011), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Caniglia & al. 2002, Lich. Graec. 228: Obermayer 2003, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Lang 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Valcuvia & Truzzi 2007b, Alessio & al. 1992, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Piervittori 2003, Matteucci & al. 2010), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995b, Loppi & al. 1996b, 1997b, Putortì & al. 1999, Loppi & Frati 2006, Stofer 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Benesperi 2011, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Paoli & al. 2012, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Brackel 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Massari & Ravera 2002, Ravera 2006c, 2008b, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2016), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2010, Brackel 2020), Sar (Zedda 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001, Rizzi & al. 2011, Neuwirth 2018). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Czeczguga & al. 1999, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose-leprose, not well delimited, usually thin, sometimes of scattered granules, but most commonly continuous and colouring rather large surfaces of a bright yellow colour. Thallus consisting of a mass of fine soredia-like granules, 12-30(-40) µm diam.; medulla usually not evident, in thick thalli sometimes indistinctly present, yellow. Apothecia very rare, to 0.5 mm in diam., pale orange-yellow, often yellow-pruinose, with a thin, ecorticate, soon excluded margin. Epithecium hyaline, to 18 µm tall, of a reticulate layer of richly branched paraphysoids; hymenium colourless, to 50 µm tall; paraphysoids 1-1.5 µm wide, richly intertwined in epithecium; hypothecium colourless, poorly developed. Asci 8-spored, clavate, the inner wall extending to form a K/I+ blue papilla. Ascospores 1-3-septate, hyaline, 9-14 x 3 µm. Spot tests: K- or K+ orange, C-, KC- or KC+ orange, P- or P+ orange, UV-. Chemistry: calycin or pinastric acid, rarely both.
Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen found on dry, shaded parts of trunks of deciduous and coniferous trees, on faces protected from rain, sometimes on lignum. The recent record from Tuscany by Pasquinelli & al. (2009), judging from the picture, refers to a free-living epiphytic Trentepohlia.
Growth form: Leprose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: extremely rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

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4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

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4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

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5





Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26680)
2001/12/04


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (35165)
2008.03.03



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Bosco della Stua, Lago di Sauris, 1000m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Passo del Pura, Ampezzo Carnico, 1400 m
09.09.2016


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php (Courtesy: Anita Stridvall)


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[17172], Mexico, Baja California Sur, Sierra de la Laguna, E of Todos Santos, trail to Sierra de la Laguna, subtropical thorn forest bordering the Sonoran Desert to Oak forest, on bark of a deciduous tree. 24°32' N, 110°00' W. Leg. K. & A. Kalb & Th.Nash, 03.01.1991. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 498.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[17172], Mexico, Baja California Sur, Sierra de la Laguna, E of Todos Santos, trail to Sierra de la Laguna, subtropical thorn forest bordering the Sonoran Desert to Oak forest, on bark of a deciduous tree. 24°32' N, 110°00' W. Leg. K. & A. Kalb & Th.Nash, 03.01.1991. KALB: LICHENES NEOTROPICI 498.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19452], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Ludwigsburg, im Krummbachtal zwischen Büsnau und Gerlingen (Kücherain), 48.76951° N, 9.05428° E, 428 m, im Laubwald an der Stammbasis von Quercus, TK: 7220/NW. Leg. F. Schumm, 22.05.2016.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9588], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Schramberg, westliche Talseite im Schiltachtal, 3 km südlich Schramberg, auf Kiefernrinde, 550 m, TK: 7716/SW. Leg. V. Wirth & U. Schwarz 21.11.1992, det. V. Wirth 1992.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9588], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Schramberg, westliche Talseite im Schiltachtal, 3 km südlich Schramberg, auf Kiefernrinde, 550 m, TK: 7716/SW. Leg. V. Wirth & U. Schwarz 21.11.1992, det. V. Wirth 1992.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[9588], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Schramberg, westliche Talseite im Schiltachtal, 3 km südlich Schramberg, auf Kiefernrinde, 550 m, TK: 7716/SW. Leg. V. Wirth & U. Schwarz 21.11.1992, det. V. Wirth 1992.



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37232



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37232