Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd.

Fl. Berol.: 363, 1787. Basionym: Lichen foliaceus Huds. - Fl. Angl.: 457, 1762
Synonyms: Cladonia alcicornis (Lightf.) Fr.; Cladonia convoluta (Lam.) Anders; Cladonia endiviifolia auct. p.p.; Cladonia foliacea f. convoluta (Lam.); Cladonia foliacea subsp. convoluta (Lam.) Cretz.; Cladonia foliacea var. alcicornis (Lightf.) Schaer.; Cladonia foliacea var. convoluta (Lam.) Vain.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Giovagnoli & Tasinazzo 2014), TAA (De Benetti & Caniglia 1993), Lomb (Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Assini 2007, Gheza & al. 2015, Gheza 2015), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Gheza 2015), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Scarpa 1993, Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Petrak 1960, Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Gheza & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, 2006, Loppi & al. 2004b, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, 2013, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2020), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000, 2007, Ravera & al. 2006, Brackel 2015), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Genovesi & al. 2011, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2015, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Brackel 2020), Sar (Nöske 2000, Zedda & al. 2010, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cogoni & al. 2011, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Ricciardi & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, 2004, Brackel 2011,Gianfreda & Matino 2020), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza & Fascetti 2005, 2012, Fascetti & al. 2006, Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Grillo & al. 2002, Merlo 2004, 2004b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2005, 2006, Caniglia & Grillo 2005, 2006, Brackel 2008b, 2008c, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Liistro & Cataldo 2011, Cataldo & Minissale 2013, 2015).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, the squamules large, 6-40 mm long, 2-20 mm wide, sometimes with black or white hairs at the margins, persistent, forming more or less dense, 4-10 cm broad mats, yellowish green to greenish-grey above, cream-coloured (yellowish) and finely arachnoid beneath. Podetia vey rare, hollow inside, up to 1.5(-2) cm tall, with irregular cups, the surface corticate, smooth, very rarely with squamules on the margin of cups. Apothecia pale brown, convex, often confluent. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia frequent on the primary squamules or at the margins of cups, sessile to prominent, with a colourless jelly. Conidia bacilliform. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K- or K+ yellow, C-, KC+ yellowish, P+ red, UV-. Chemistry: fumarprotocetraric and usnic acids, rarely with additional psoromic acid, frequently with traces of zeorin.
Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on both calcareous and siliceous soil in dry grasslands, or in intradunal depressions, also occurring in dry-continental Alpine valleys. The C. foliacea-C. convoluta complex was revised by Pino-Bodas & al. (2010): neither morphological characters nor phylogenetic analyses gave evidence to delimit two taxa.
Growth form: Fruticose

Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by thallus fragmentation

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9372], Spanien, La Gomera, bei Arure an der Straße nach Las Hayas. Trockener Abhang mit Felsblöcken und Euphorbia. 28°07.895 N, 17°18.983 W, 870 m. Leg. Schumm 14.02.2002.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php - Courtesy: Anita Stridvall
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (4051)
2001/12/04



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10122)
2001/12/04


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (10122)
2001/12/04
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Segesta, presso i templi
2008.04.05
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Gabriele Gheza, Tromello (PV)
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[9372], Spanien, La Gomera, bei Arure an der Straße nach Las Hayas. Trockener Abhang mit Felsblöcken und Euphorbia. 28°07.895 N, 17°18.983 W, 870 m. Leg. Schumm 14.02.2002.,
HPTLC in den Laufmitteln A, B’ und C nach Säurebehandlung bei Tageslicht und 366 nm UV-Langwelle. 1: Start, 4: Position von Norstictinsäure, 7: Position von Atranorin, us: Usninsäure fpr: Fumarprotocetrarsäure pr: Protocetrarsäure


Simonetta Peruzzi; Owner: Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi
2010
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)


Simonetta Peruzzi
Italy, Toscana, Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi
2010
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)


Zahlbruckner A. 1926. Lichenes (Flechten). In: Engler A. (ed.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd ed., vol 8, W. Engelmann, Leipzig, 270 pp.



Domenico Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Calabria
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)



Domenico Puntillo - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Calabria
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[12537], Griechenland, W-Samos, Mt. Kerketeas, beim Kloster Perados, 37°44.926'N, 26°38.888'E, 575 m. Leg. Schumm, Düll & Wunder 13.05.2006, det. Schumm.
Calcicolous form (f. convoluta)


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Fiesole, Monte Ceceri, 390 m
31/01/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Fiesole, Monte Ceceri, 390 m
31/01/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Toscana, Firenze, Fiesole, Monte Ceceri, 390 m
31/01/2020


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Milano, Magenta, valle del Ticino, 116 m
17/05/2019


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Liguria, Imperia, Badalucco, 600 m
03/2017


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Vigevano, valle del Ticino, 75 m
09/2018


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Vigevano, valle del Ticino, 75 m
09/2018


Gabriele Gheza - https://lichenidilombardia.home.blog
Italy, Lombardia, Pavia, Dossi della Lomellina, 115 m
03/2011