Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 237, 1831. Basionym: Scyphophorus sulphurinus Michx. - Fl. Bor.-Amer., 2: 238, 1803.
Synonyms: Cladonia deformis var. gonecha (Ach.) Arnold; Cladonia gonecha (Ach.) Asahina
Distribution: N - Frl (Martellos 2005), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene 2008c, 2011), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Rivellini & Valcuvia 1996, Nascimbene 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2003b, 2006, 2006b), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Matteucci & al. 2008, Isocrono & al. 2008).
Description: Primary thallus squamulose, persistent, the squamules rather large, flat or ascending, more or less round, slightly crenulate, 2-4(-8) mm long and 2.5-4(-6) mm wide, bright yellowish green above, white to yellow-brown beneath, sometimes sorediate along the margins. Podetia elongate, hollow inside, bright yellowish green, 2-5(-8) cm tall, mostly cupless and with pointed ends, sometimes with narrow, lacerated, very irregular, sorediate cups, much deformed and longitudinally split, corticate and often squamulose only at base, farinose-sorediate in upper part, the soredia 20-40 μm in diam. Apothecia rather rare, scarlet red. Asci 8-spored, clavate, thickened at apex, with a K/I+ blue tholus and a K/I+ strongly blue outer gelatinous sheath, Cladonia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid. Pycnidia scarlet red, subglobose, semi-immersed along the margins of cups, with a red jelly. Conidia cylindrical. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC+ yellowish, P-, UV+ white. Chemistry: usnic and sometimes squamatic acids, plus fatty acids; rhodocladonic acid in apothecia and pycnidia.
Note: a circumboreal-subarctic lichen found on organic substrata in cold-shaded situations, most common on rotting wood, e.g. on stumps and decaying fallen trunks. See also note on C. deformis.
Growth form: Fruticose

Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (12982)
2001/12/04
detail of cups


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Paneveggio, Reg. Trentino-Alto Adige Prov. Trento, Italy.
2009


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php