Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot.

Uebers. Schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur: 130, 1849. Basionym: Lichen alboater Hoffm. - Enum. Lich. Icon.: 30, 1784.
Synonyms: Abacina alboatra (Hoffm.) Norman; Buellia alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr.; Buellia alboatra var. ambigua (Ach.) Th. Fr.; Buellia alboatra var. subochracea Zahlbr.; Buellia alboatra var. vulgata Th. Fr.; Buellia alboatra var. zabotica (Körb.) Th. Fr.; Buellia ambigua (Ach.) Malme; Buellia atromaculata Sandst.; Buellia epipolia (Ach.) Mong. non auct.; Buellia lainea (Ach.) Clauzade & Ozenda; Buellia subochracea (Zahlbr.) J. Steiner; Diplotomma ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey; Diplotomma epipolium (Ach.) Arnold non auct.; Diplotomma epipolium var. ambiguum (Ach.) Arnold; Diplotomma heppianum (Müll. Arg.) Arnold; Diplotomma subochraceum (Zahlbr.) Szatala; Diplotomma tegulare Körb.; Lecidea ambigua Ach.; Lecidea heppiana Müll. Arg.; Lichen epipolius Ach. non auct.; Rhizocarpon alboatrum (Hoffm.) Anzi; Rhizocarpon soreumidium (stirt.) A.L. Sm.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hafellner 1979, Nascimbene & al. 2007b, Nascimbene 2008b, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & al. 1995, 1998, 2006, Loppi & Putortì 1995, Putortì & al. 1998, Loppi & Frati 2006, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000, 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006, Genovesi 2011), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, 1998, Massari & Ravera 2002, Roccardi 2003, Munzi & al. 2007, Genovesi & al. 2011), Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2009, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Zedda & al. 2001, Zedda 2002, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Catalano & al. 2012, 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Paoli & al. 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Poli & al. 1998, Caniglia & Grillo 2001, Grillo & al. 2001, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Ottonello & al. 2011, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, pale grey, epruinose, forming small patches (to 2 cm diam.), smooth or rimose-cracked. Cortex colourless, indistinctly paraplectenchymatous; medulla white, I-. Apothecia lecideine, black, 0.2-1.3 mm across, immersed to subsessile, with a flat to convex, often pruinose disc, a thin sometimes excluded proper margin, and sometimes a pseudothalline margin in young apothecia. Proper exciple brown in outer part, colourless to pale brown in inner part, of radiating hyphae; epithecium brown; hymenium 45-75 μm high, colourless, K/I+ blue; paraphyses simple, c. 2 μm wide at base, the apical cells slightly capitate, to 3 μm wide; hypothecium brown. Asci 8-spored, clavate, with a thick apex, amyloid, with a distinct axial mass, Bacidia-type. Ascospores at first 3-septate, then most often submuriform, brown, ellipsoid, sometimes slightly curved, thick-walled, (11-)13-20(-25) x (6-)8-10(-17) μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a mild-temperate to southern boreal-montane lichen found on bark and on base-rich or slightly calciferous rocks, brick, roofing tiles etc., below the subalpine belt. See also note on D. nivale.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark and rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather rare
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (18082)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (18082)
2008.03.06



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13215)
2008.03.06



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14192], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m, an Mauern aus Lava. Leg. A. Aptroot & F. Schumm 17.07.2008, det. F. Schumm 2008.



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 13440



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 6139



G. Incerti CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 30193