Dirina massiliensis Durieu & Mont.

in Durieu, Explor. Sc. Algérie: 257, 1847.
Synonyms: Dirina cyclosora Poelt & Nimis; Dirina immersa f. sorediata Müll. Arg.; Dirina massiliensis f. aponina (A. Massal.) Tehler; Dirina massiliensis f. sorediata (Müll. Arg.) Tehler; Dirina patronii Bagl.; Dirina repanda auct. non Fr.; Dirina repanda var. pelagosae J. Steiner & Zahlbr.; Dirina stenhammarii (Fr.) Poelt & Follmann; Dirinopsis massiliensis De Not.; Lecanactis aponina (A. Massal.) Arnold; Lecanactis stenhammari (Fr.) Arnold; Pyrenotea aponina A. Massal.
Distribution: N - VG, Ven (Lazzarin 2000b, Salvadori & Municchia 2016), TAA, Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008b, Salvadori & Municchia 2016), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Edwards & al. 1997, 1997b, Bartoli & al. 1998, Roccardi & al. 2005, Roccardi 2011, Zucconi & al. 2012), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Monte 1993, Nöske 2000, Tehler & al. 2013). S - Camp (Altieri & al. 2000, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Garofalo & al. 2010), Pugl (Edwards & al. 1997, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Durini & Medagli 2002, Tehler & al. 2013), Bas (Caneva & al. 2006, Nugari & al. 2009), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Monte & Ferrari 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Merlo 2004b, Genco & al. 2007, Grillo & al. 2009, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Ottonello & Puntillo 2009, Tehler & al. 2013).
Description: Thallus crustose, corticate, effuse, smooth to cracked or slightly areolate, 0.2-3.5 mm thick, creamy white to white-grey, rarely dark grey or grey-brown, pruinose, often delimited by a black to almost white prothallus, sometimes with punctiform or maculiform soralia which are paler than thallus. Cortex of mainly anticlinally arranged hyphae, masked by many crystals of oxalates; medulla thick, white, chalk-like, filled with crystals. Apothecia lecanorine, circular to angular in outline, constricted at base, 0.5-3 mm across, with a black but often white-pruinose disc and an entire to undulate thalline margin. Proper exciple inconspicuous; epithecium brownish; hymenium colourless; paraphysoids unbranched or sparsely branched, 1-2 µm thick, the apices 1-3 µm wide; hypothecium black. Asci 8-spored, clavate, bitunicate, the apex thickened with a small internal K/I+ blue ring. Ascospores 3-septate, hyaline, fusiform, 20-24 x 4-6 µm. Pycnidia black,immersed or slightly protruding. Conidia thread-like, sickle-shaped, 12-16 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K- C+ red, KC+ red, P-, UV-; medulla and soralia K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV+ yellowish; apothecial disc C+ faintly red. Chemistry: erythrin, lecanoric acid, unidentified substances.
Note: on steeply inclined or underhanging surfaces of basic siliceous or calcareous rocks, very variable according to the type of substrata (thallus colour depends on the quantity of calcium oxalates, and on the density of epilichenic cyanobacteria); the sexual form seems to be absent along the Adriatic coast north of Abruzzo up to the coast near Trieste (like another ecologically similar species: Roccella phycopsis). For further details see Tehler & al. (2013).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain
Taxon bound to maritime-coastal situations

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: common
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather common


pH of the substrata:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Solar irradiation:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Aridity:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Eutrophication:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5

Poleotolerance:

(info)

0

1

2

3

Altitudinal distribution:

(info)

1

2

3

4

5





P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37294



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (7752)
2001/11/24



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Ssrdinia, Italy
2006



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Ssrdinia, Italy
2006



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Ssrdinia, Italy
2006



Juri Nascimbene – CC BY-SA 4.0; Owner: Department of ùLife Sciences, University of Trieste
Ssrdinia, Italy
2006



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Südspanien, Prov. Almería, flächendeckend an halbschattigen, windgeschützten Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauhen Ergußgesteins im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 200 m, NW, pH 6.9, Küstenberge westlich Carboneras am Cabo de Gata. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Jan. 1975. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 147 (as Dirina patronii). [2480]



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
Westmarokko, Distr. Agadir, gesellig an halbschattigen Stirn- und Überhangsflächen rauher Kalkfelsen im Roccelletum tinctoriae Klem., 40 m, NW-SW, pH 7.8, Steilküste am Cap Rhir unweit Tamri. Leg. et det. G. Follmann Juni 1967. Lichenes Exsiccati Selecti A Museo Historiae Naturalis Casselensi Editi Nr. 87 (as Dirina repanda). [2521]



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Egadi Islands (W Sicily), Island of Levanzo


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands, on calcareous rocks



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37296


Jennifer Fiorentino
Malta, Maltese Islands, on calcareous rocks



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37296



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 36721



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38237



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38237



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 38237



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 43784



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 43784