Endocarpon pallidum Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ., 301, 1810.
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon pallidum (Ach.) Mudd; Verrucaria pallida (Ach.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (TSB 5207), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Sar. S - Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2001, 2006, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).
Description: Thallus squamulose, heteromerous, pale greenish grey to pale brown when dry, green when wet, smooth, dull. Squamules (0.5)1-2(-4) mm broad, 0.2-0.3 μm thick, rounded to irregularly lobed, flattened, smooth, contiguous, usually not imbricate, with an often slightly up-turned margin. Lower surface whitish to pale brown, with a few bundles of hyaline, c. 2.5 μm thick rhizohyphae. Upper cortex pseudoparenchymatous; lower cortex absent; medulla white, of loosely interwoven hyphae. Perithecia frequent, globose to broadly pyriform, without involucrellum, fully immersed, to 0.4 mm diam., the apex concolourous with thallus or darker. Exciple brown to black throughout, c. 30 μm thick; paraphyses absent, substituted by periphyses; hymenium colourless, I+ brown-red; hymenial algae ellipsoid to globose, 3-5 μm diam. Asci 2-spored, clavate to cylindrical-clavate, bi- and fissitunicate, thin-walled, the wall non-amyloid. Ascospores muriform, at first hyaline, then turning brown, ellipsoid, 28-40(-50) x 11-16(-19) μm, the apical spore smaller. Pycnidia black, immersed, inconspicuous. Conidia crescent-shaped, hyaline, 3-5 x <1 μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid (Stichococcus, present in both thallus and hymenium). Spot tests: thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a mainly southern lichen found in open, dry, calcareous grasslands. Several Italian records require re-confirmation: the epithet "pallidum" was often used in the past to designate E. adscendens.
Growth form: Squamulose
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Subcontinental: restricted to areas with a dry-subcontinental climate (e.g. dry Alpine valleys, parts of Mediterranean Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: very rare
Dry mediterranean belt: rare


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 2996


S. Martellos; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Carso triestino, Val Rosandra; altitude: 250 m..
Herbarium: TSB (7835)
2007/03/08
Undersurface of a squamule