Enterographa zonata (Körb.) Torrente & Egea

Källsten ex Torrente & Egea, Bibl. Lichenol., 32: 198, 1989. Basionym: Opegrapha zonata Körb. - Syst. Lich. Germ., 1855.
Synonyms: Lecanactis zonata (Körb.) A. Massal.; Opegrapha horistica (Leight.) P. Syd.; Verrucaria horistica Leight.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach 2004), TAA (Nascimbene 2006c, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2014), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Bas (Ravera & al. 2019b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus crustose, endo- to episubstratic in non-sorediate parts, thin to thick, continuous, rimose to indistinctly areolate, pale to dark chocolate brown, often with a pale violet tinge, sorediate, delimited from conspecific thalli by a black prothallus, and hence often forming extended mosaics. Soralia punctiform to maculiform, usually discrete, 0.2-0,5(-1) mm in diam., pale brown to brown-violet, much paler when eroded and then contrasting with the darker thallus; soredia farinose. Apothecia rare, at first rounded and almost perithecioid, finally lirelliform, 0.2-1 x 0.1-0.3 mm, black, unbranched, with a slit-like disc. Excipulum black in outer part, pale at the base; epithecium brown; hymenium 75-90 µm high, colourless, I+ blue. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, fissitunicate, the apical dome wih a short ocular chamber surrounded by an amyloid ring. Ascospores 6-7-septate, hyaline, fusiform and pointed at apices, 22-28(-36) x 3-6 µm. Pycnidia black, immersed. Conidia 5-6 x c. 0.5 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus and soralia K-, C-, KC-, P-; soralia UV+ deep blue. Chemistry: confluentic, 2'-0-methylmicrophyllinic and 2'-0-methylperlatolic acids.
Note: a temperate to southern boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar lichen found on vertical to underhanging surfaces of hard siliceous rocks in deep gorges or in mature forests, very rarely on bark, mostly in the mountains. See also Sparrius (2004).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent


pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41449



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34258)
2001/12/08



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA4.0
[20888], Austria. Kärnten, Eastern Alps, Styrian Fringe Mountains, Koralpe, 15.2 km west of Deutschlandsberg, 46°50'40'' N, 15°1'05'' E, 1750-1800 m, gneissic rocks. Leg. W. Obermayer (no 13944), B. Coppins, J. Hafellner,21.03.2012, det. W. Obermayer. LICHENOTHECA GRAECENSIS NR. 1153



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA4.0
[20888], Austria. Kärnten, Eastern Alps, Styrian Fringe Mountains, Koralpe, 15.2 km west of Deutschlandsberg, 46°50'40'' N, 15°1'05'' E, 1750-1800 m, gneissic rocks. Leg. W. Obermayer (no 13944), B. Coppins, J. Hafellner,21.03.2012, det. W. Obermayer. LICHENOTHECA GRAECENSIS NR. 1153



D. Puntillo CC BY-SA 4.0



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41449



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Calabria



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37359



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37359