Graphis elegans (Sm.) Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 85, 1814. Basionym: Opegrapha elegans Borrer ex Sm. in Smith & Sowerby - Engl. Bot., 26: tab. 1812, 1807.
Synonyms: Graphis neglecta Erichsen; Graphis petrina Nyl.; Graphis ramificans Nyl.; Graphis sulcata (Pers.) A. Massal.; Phaeographis ramificans (Nyl.) Lettau
Distribution: N - Frl, TAA, Lomb (HAL-18596), Piem (Matteucci & al. 2010). C - Tosc (Pasquinelli & al. 2009). S - Cal (CLU 10506).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, continuous to faintly cracked, white, cream-coloured or greenish grey, often with orange stains when fresh. Apothecia lirelliform, black, raised from thallus, oblong, branched and flexuous, 1-4 x 0.3-0.5(-1) mm, with a usually slit-like disc, and a well-developed, distinctly longitudinally furrowed proper margin. Exciple black and carbonized, except sometimes at base below the hymenium, 75-150 µm wide laterally; epithecium brown; hymenium colourless, not inspersed with oil droplets, 100-120 µm high; paraphyses 1.5-2.5 µm thick, simple or rarely brached in upper part; hypothecium colourless, 20-50 µm high. Asci 8-spored, clavate, non-fissitunicate, opening through an apical split. Ascospores 8-12-septate, colourless (brown when overmature), fusiform-elongate, thick-walled, the locules more or less cylindrical to rounded, 32-55(-60) x 6-12(-15) µm, the wall reacting I+ dark violet. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: K+ yellow turning orange-red, C-, KC- or KC+red, P+ faintly yellow-orange, UV-. Chemistry: norstictic and connorstictic acids.
Note: a mild-temperate to humid subtropical species found on smooth bark, especially of Ilex in warm-humid woodlands, to be looked for further in Tyrrhenian Italy. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Endangered” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (20897)
2001/12/12



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[11192], Portugal, Azoren, Sao Miguel: SO-Ufer des Lagoa Azul, 37°51.307' N, 25°47.060' W, 280 m, an Laubbaumrinden. Leg. Schumm 06.06.2003, det. Schumm 2003.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14196], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 17.07.2008, det. Schumm 17.08.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14196], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 17.07.2008, det. Schumm 17.08.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14196], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 17.07.2008, det. Schumm 17.08.2008.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[14196], Portugal, Azoren, Terceira, Angra Do Heroismo, Fortaleza de Dao Joao Baptista, 38°39.171' N, 27°13.457' W, ca. 44 m. Leg. Aptroot & Schumm 17.07.2008, det. Schumm 17.08.2008.