Gyrographa gyrocarpa (Flot.) Ertz & Tehler

in Ertz & al., Fungal Divers., 70: 42, 2014. Basionym: Opegrapha gyrocarpa Flot. - Flora, 1825: 345, 1825.
Synonyms: Opegrapha gyrocarpa var. arenaria Körb.; Opegrapha rupestris var. arenaria (Körb.) Stein; Opegrapha rupestris var. schisticola Eitner; Opegrapha saxicola var. gyrocarpa (Flot.) Stizenb.; Opegrapha saxicola var. schisticola (Eitner) Zahlbr.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene 2006c), Lomb, Piem (TSB 33728), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (TSB 31061). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Camp, Cal.
Description: Thallus crustose, non corticate, continuous to usually cracked, in different shades of brown, from orange-brown to rust-brown and dark brown, often with paler, pinkish areas, becoming yellowish brown in the herbarium, often delimited from adjacent thalli by a black hypothalline line, and hence often forming mosaics on the rock. Soralia irregular, 0.4-1 mm diam., ochre-yellow to grey-pinkish, often confluent and generating a thick verrucose layer. Apothecia rare, lirelliform, elliptical to round in outline, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm long/wide, black, with a more or less gyrose disc and a dark, K+ olive-green, exciple. Epithecium pale; hymenium colourless, 80-120 µm tall, hemiamyloid; paraphysoids branched and anastomosed, with slightly enlarged apices; hypothecium black, thick, carbonised. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate. Ascospores 3-septate, slightly clavate, (12-)17-25(-30) x 3-6 µm, without a gelatinous sheath. Pycnidia black. Conidia straight, bacilliform, 4-6 x 0.5-1 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: soralia K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-, UV+ glaucous or pale yellow. Chemistry: gyrophoric acid, schizopeltic acid, unidentified xanthone and accessory substances.
Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of siliceous rocks, often within forests in cold-humid situations, more rarely on subacid bark.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33728)
2001/12/18
mosaic of young thalli



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33728)
2001/12/18
sterile thallus



Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada
2018


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41443



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41446



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 41446


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/