Heteroplacidium fusculum (Nyl.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux

Mycol. Res., 111: 1157, 2007. Basionym: Verrucaria fuscula Nyl. - Bot. Not.: 161, 1853.
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon insulare (A. Massal.) Mig.; Dermatocarpon nantianum (H. Olivier) Zahlbr.; Encliopyrenia fuscula (Nyl.) Trevis.; Endocarpon insulare (A. Massal.) A. Massal.; Endopyrenium insulare (A. Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.; Placidium insulare A. Massal.; Placidium iranicum Szatala; Verrucaria insularis (A. Massal.) Jatta
Distribution: N - VG, Frl, Ven (Lazzarin 2000b), TAA, Lomb, Piem, Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Lich. Alpium 261: Breuss 1994, Giordani & al. 2016). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz (TSB 32427), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2009, Genovesi & Ravera 2014), Sar (Breuss 1994). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Breuss 1994, Puntillo 1996), Si (Breuss 1994, Nimis & al. 1994, 1996b, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2005, 2006).
Description: Thallus crustose-areolate to subsquamulose, brown to dark brown (almost black in sun-forms), forming dark islands on the thallus of species of the Circinaria calcarea-complex. Areoles to c. 2 mm wide and to c. 0.6 µm thick, angular to rounded, flat or slightly convex, constricted at base into short peg-like projections composed of vertically oriented hyphae. Upper cortex pseudoparenchymatous, brown in upper part. Perithecia more or less globose, immersed in the areoles, with only the ostiolar region emergent, without involucrellum; exciple initially pale but darkening with age, especially around the ostiole; hamathecium of periphyses and periphysoids, interascal filaments absent; hymenial gel hemiamyloid, I+ red (I+ blue at very low concentrations of I), K/I+ blue. Asci 8-spored, narrowly clavate, I-, fissitunicate, the wall thickened above, Verrucaria-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, (7-)9-13(-15) x 6-10 µm. Pycnidia immersed, of Dermatocarpon-type. Conidia simple, cylindrical to rod-shaped, 3-5 µm long. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: a species with a crustose-areolate, dark brown thallus but otherwise with a Heteroplacidium-anatomy, starting the life-cycle on taxa of the Circinaria calcarea-group, but finally often becoming independent, on calcareous rocks; widely distributed and fairly common in the Mediterranean Region, with some outposts in central Europe.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
paras Circinaria calcarea s.lat.

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely common
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely common
Humid mediterranean belt: very common
Dry mediterranean belt: rather rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 26844



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Segesta, presso i templi
2008.04.05



A. Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Sicilia, TP, Segesta, presso i templi
2008.04.05



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Val Rosandra, San Lorenzo near Belvedere
11/02/2017



Pier Luigi Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Val Rosandra, San Lorenzo near Belvedere
11/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst near Borgo Grotta Gigante
16/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Triedte
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Trieste Karst, Rocca di Monrupino
20/02/2017



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (26844)
2001/12/11


Zschacke, H. (1934) Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In: Dr. L. Rabenhorst‘s Kryptogamen-Flora, Band 9, Abt. 1, Teil 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 695 pp. - Public Domain



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 26844



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (13431)
2001/12/03
on the host, Aspicilia farinosa