Hydropunctaria amphibia (Ach.) Cl. Roux

in Roux & al., Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, num. spéc. 14: 108, 2011. Basionym: Verrucaria amphibia Clemente ex Ach. - Syn. Meth. Lich.: 94, 1814.
Synonyms: Verrucaria symbalana Nyl.
Distribution: N - Ven, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, rather thick, smooth, glossy, brownish black, dark green when moist, subgelatinous when wet, uneven, slightly to abundantly cracked, the marginal parts with small, sinuous, radially oriented black wrinkles, the central parts with shorter wrinkles or crests oriented in all directions, with no evident prothallus. Cortex poorly defined, with a brown pigment in upper part; photobiont cells arranged in vertical rows; medulla with distinctly elongated, 40-400 x 40-60 μm, carbonaceous columns, some of which always reach the surface, at least near the thallus margin. Perithecia 0.3-0.6 mm across, conical-hemispherical, projecting, with a flattened and crenulate apex, the ostioles visible as minute pits, the flanks uneven or crenulate. Involucrellum black, well-developed; hamathecium of periphyses and periphysoids, interascal filaments absent; hymenial gel hemiamyloid, I+ red (I+ blue at very low concentrations of I), K/I + blue. Asci 8-spored, clavate, I-, fissitunicate, the wall thickened above, with an ocular chamber, dehiscent by extrusion of an endotunica to form a delicate rostrum, Verrucaria-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, 13-18 x 5-7 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: without lichen substances.
Note: on maritime rocks. The whole complex of the Mediterranean-Atlantic brown maritime Hydropunctaria-species badly needs revision in Italy, but this is perhaps the most common species of the genus along the Italian coasts, occurring on both siliceous and calcareous rocks.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Periodically submerged (e.g. in creeks)
Taxon bound to maritime-coastal situations

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: rare
Dry mediterranean belt: rare

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Source: http://fungi.myspecies.info/all-fungi/hydropunctaria-amphibia - CC BY-NC

Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Vancouver Island, Albert Head Date: 2013-10-03 Saxicolous, aerohaline rocks

Zschacke, H. (1934) Epigloeaceae, Verrucariaceae und Dermatocarpaceae. In: Dr. L. Rabenhorst‘s Kryptogamen-Flora, Band 9, Abt. 1, Teil 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig, 695 pp. - Public Domain