Hypogymnia bitteri (Lynge) Ahti

Ann. Bot. Fenn., 1: 20, 1964. Basionym: Parmelia bitteri Lynge - Skr. Vidensk.-Selsk. Christiania, Math. Naturvidensk. Kl., 7: 138, 1921.
Synonyms: Hypogymnia obscurata auct.; Parmelia obscurata auct. et sensu Bitter
Distribution: N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, 2014c, Nascimbene 2006b, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Matteucci & Vanacore Falco 2015), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc, Abr. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (TSB 12149), Si.
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, adpressed, forming more or less regular, up to 9(-12) cm wide rosettes, the lobes contiguous, (0.5-)1-3(-4) mm broad, clearly swollen especially in apical parts. Upper surface greenish grey to brown in sun-forms and/or in peripheral parts, dark mottled, rather glossy, becoming rugose, with mainly terminal, blue-grey or whitish grey, capitate soralia both on the main lobes and on short, upturned, lateral lobes, sometimes also with secondarily diffuse laminal soredia. Lower surface black, erhizinate. Upper cortex of tightly packed, more or less anticlinally oriented hyphae, the cell walls with Cetraria-type lichenan; medulla soon becoming hollow, lining the cavity inside the lobes; lower cortex dark, paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia and pycnidia extremely rare (not observed in Italian material). Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ pale yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ orange-red, P-, UV-. Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with physodic acid (major), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid, 2'-O-methylphysodic acid (minor and/or accessory), and an unknown accessory substance.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on acid bark, especially of conifers, occasionally on lignum and on siliceous rocks, with optimum near treeline. Most common in the Alps, but extending along the Apennines up to the mountains of Sicily.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9457)
2001/12/12



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9457)
2001/12/12
tip of lobes



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1055], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, Ladenberghöhe, ca. 1630 m. Leg. Schumm 19.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1055], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, Ladenberghöhe, ca. 1630 m. Leg. Schumm 19.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1055], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, Ladenberghöhe, ca. 1630 m. Leg. Schumm 19.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1055], Österreich, Land Salzburg, Tennengebirge (bei Bischofshofen), Anton-Proksch-Haus bei Werfenweng, Ladenberghöhe, ca. 1630 m. Leg. Schumm 19.08.1969, det. Schumm 1969



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Stelvio National Park, Reg. Trentino-Alto Adige Prov. Trento, Italy.
07.2005


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Juri Nascimbene - CC BY-SA 4.0
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Bolzano/Bozen, Val Mazia
2017



Curtis Randall Björk - CC BY-SA 4.0
near Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia, Canada
pale, forest form



Curtis Randall Björk - CC BY-SA 4.0
Courageous Lake Northwest Territories, Canada
brown,tundra form



Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
Sugarbowl-Grizzly Den Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada
August 2017
as v. tilesii


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37317



Pier Luigi Nimis - Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37317



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41580


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/