Hypogymnia farinacea Zopf

Ann. Chemie, 352: 42, 1907.
Synonyms: Hypogymnia bitteriana (Zahlbr.) Räsänen; Parmelia bitteriana Zahlbr.; Parmelia farinacea Bitter non (L.) Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Nascimbene 2008c, 2011, Brackel 2013), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2013, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2014, Stofer 2006, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2010, Nascimbene & Marini 2015), Piem (Isocrono & Ferrarese 2008), VA, Emil (Brunialti & al. 2001, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Ravera & al. 2022b). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Bas (Potenza 2006, Potenza & al. 2010, Brackel 2011, Potenza & Fascetti 2012), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Incerti & Nimis 2006), Si (Brackel 2008c).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, closely adpressed, up to 5(-7) cm broad, the lobes contiguous, grey to brownish grey, wrinkled, dull, 1-2(-3) mm broad, mostly convex, the apex much swollen and hollow inside, the surface largely covered by soredia arising from wrinkles on the upper surface, which crack and develop soredia along the edges of cracks. Lower surface black (brown at margins and lobe tips), rugose, without rhizines. Upper cortex of tightly packed, more or less anticlinally oriented hyphae, the cell walls with Cetraria-type lichenan; medulla soon becoming hollow, lining the cavity inside the lobes; lower cortex dark, paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia extremely rare, lecanorine. Epithecium brown; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, subglobose, 5-6 x 4-5 µm. Pycnidia immersed, black. Conidia rod-shaped to weakly bifusiform. Photobiont clorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ pale yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ red, P-, UV+ violet-blue. Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with physodic acid (major), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (accessory), 2'-O-methylphysodic acid (minor accessory), and other accessory unknown substances.
Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, most frequent in the Alps, much rarer in the mountains of southern Italy.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36836)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36836)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36836)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36836)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36836)
2008.02.28



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[4941], Germany, Bayern, Kreis Oberallgäu, Blausee, ca. 3 km ENE von Unterschwarzenberg, 870 m, TK 8328/2. Leg. Schumm 21.08.1998, det. Schumm 1998.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[4941], Germany, Bayern, Kreis Oberallgäu, Blausee, ca. 3 km ENE von Unterschwarzenberg, 870 m, TK 8328/2. Leg. Schumm 21.08.1998, det. Schumm 1998.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[4941], Germany, Bayern, Kreis Oberallgäu, Blausee, ca. 3 km ENE von Unterschwarzenberg, 870 m, TK 8328/2. Leg. Schumm 21.08.1998, det. Schumm 1998.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[4941], Germany, Bayern, Kreis Oberallgäu, Blausee, ca. 3 km ENE von Unterschwarzenberg, 870 m, TK 8328/2. Leg. Schumm 21.08.1998, det. Schumm 1998.


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/
Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24697



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24697



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24697



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 24697


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/lichens/gallery/ Courtesy: Anita Stridvall


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/