Hypotrachyna laevigata (Sm.) Hale

Smithsonian Contr. Bot., 25: 44, 1975. Basionym: Lichen laevigatus Sm. - Engl. Bot., 26: 1852, 1808.
Synonyms: Parmelia laevigata (Sm.) Ach.
Distribution: N - Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998, Brackel 2013), Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2009c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Gheza 2019), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc (Stofer 2006, Giordani & al. 2009), Laz (Fornasier & al. 2005). S - Camp, Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Ottonello & Puntillo 2009, Ottonello & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, rather loosely attached, forming 3-12(-15) cm wide patches, sorediate. Lobes sublinear elongate, subdichotomously branched with broadly rounded axils, initially separate, becoming imbricate, (1-)2-5(-8) mm wide, with an entire to rarely incised margin, and subtruncate to subrotund apices; upper surface pale ash-grey, glaucescent, shiny, usually strongly white-maculate, with laminal to subapical, capitate, slightly excavated, sometimes confluent soralia bearing usually farinose, whitish soredia (older soredia may be granulose and brownish). Lower surface black, sometimes with a thin, brown rim, with dense, black, shiny, dichotomously branched rhizines, some of which project beyond lobe margins. Upper cortex of tightly packed, anticlinally oriented hyphae, with a pored epicortex, the cell walls with isolichenan; medulla white; algal layer continuous; lower cortex brown, of anticlinally oriented hyphae. Apothecia extremely rare, lecanorine, laminal, to 5 mm across. Epithecium brownish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 18-21 x 9-13 µm. Pycnidia black, laminal, immersed. Conidia weakly dumbbell-shaped, 4-7 x 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C+ yellow-orange, KC+ orange, P-, UV+ bluish grey. Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with 4-O-demethylbarbatic and barbatic acids (both major), obtusatic and norobtusatic acids (traces).
Note: a humid subtropical to mild-temperate species found in ancient, very humid forests, on mossy trunks and rocks, very much declining. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Near-threatened” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark and rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Restricted to humid-warm, oceanic areas

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


G. Incerti CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 16578



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (19303)
2001/12/05



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (19303)
2001/12/05



G. Incerti; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (16578)
2001/11/26



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1912], Schweiz (OW), Kanton Luzern, Merliwald östlich von Sörenberg, nördlich des Giswiler Stocks, ca. 1800 m. Leg. Schumm 13.09.1971, det. Eduard Frey 1971.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1912], Schweiz (OW), Kanton Luzern, Merliwald östlich von Sörenberg, nördlich des Giswiler Stocks, ca. 1800 m. Leg. Schumm 13.09.1971, det. Eduard Frey 1971.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1912], Schweiz (OW), Kanton Luzern, Merliwald östlich von Sörenberg, nördlich des Giswiler Stocks, ca. 1800 m. Leg. Schumm 13.09.1971, det. Eduard Frey 1971.


Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1912], Schweiz (OW), Kanton Luzern, Merliwald östlich von Sörenberg, nördlich des Giswiler Stocks, ca. 1800 m. Leg. Schumm 13.09.1971, det. Eduard Frey 1971.
ba: barbatic acid, 4o: 4-O-demethylbarbatic acid


Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
Herbarium: TSB 19303


Andres Saag, University of Tartu