Immersaria athroocarpa (Ach.) Rambold & Pietschm.

in Rambold, Bibl. Lichenol., 34: 240, 1989. Basionym: Lichen athroocarpus Ach. - Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr., 1799.
Synonyms: Amygdalaria athroocarpa (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux; Lecidea athroocarpa (Ach.) Ach.; Lecidea atrocarpoides Vain.; Lecidea atrofuscescens Nyl.; Lecidea praetervisa H. Magn.; Lecidella athroocarpa (Ach.) Arnold; Porpidia athroocarpa (Ach.) Hertel & Rambold; Psora fumosa f. polygonia sensu Anzi
Distribution: N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, areolate, pale to dark brown, often shiny, up to 0.7 mm thick, forming patches to 10 cm in diam., usually delimited by a dark prothallus; areoles angular, concave to flat, 0.5-7(-1.2) mm wide, usually with a thin whitish margin, developing on a black hypothallus. Cortex brown, 20-50 µm thick, with a thick epinecral layer; medulla white, intensively I+ blue-violet. Apothecia immersed, cryptolecideine-aspicilioid, round to angular, (0.3-)0.5-1(-1.8) mm across, with a dark grey to black, dull, concave to flat, usually epruinose disc, an indistinct thalline margin, and a thin, poorly evident and finally excluded proper margin. Proper exciple dark brown to grey-green in outer part, colourless to pale brown within, K-; epithecium brown to green-brown, 10-20 µm high; hymenium colourless or partly greenish, 60-125 µm high, I+ blue turning wine-red; paraphyses branched and anastomosing in upper part, 1.5-2 µm thick, the apical cells slightly swollen; hypothecium colourless in upper part, pale brown in lower part, up to 200 µm high, I+ blue. Asci 8-spored, narrowly cylindrical-clavate, with a I+ blue tholus and an internal, darker I+ tubular structure, the external gel I+ faintly blue, Porpidia-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 12-24(-26) x 6-13 µm, thick-walled, weakly halonate. Pycnidia dark, immersed. Conidia cylindrical, 5-12 x 1-1.2(-2) µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: cortex and medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: confluentic acid, 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid, 2'-O methylmicrophyllinic acid.
Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, chemically variable, circumpolar species found on siliceous, often iron-rich and weathered rocks in exposed situations, starting the life-cycle on species of Aspicilia s.lat.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
paras Aspicilia s.lat. spp. when young
Species of metal-rich rocks

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: rather common
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

12345

Solar irradiation:

12345

Aridity:

12345

Eutrophication:

12345

Poleotolerance:

0123

Altitudinal distribution:

123456


Predictive model
Herbarium samples


P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (4454)
2002/02/24



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41599



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41599



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41599



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41599



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 41599


Courtesy Danièle et Olivier Gonnet - Source: https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/Photos_AFL/Photos_AFL_I/Immersaria_athroocarpa.htm
France, session AFL 2010 - Lac du Salagou - Hérault


Courtesy Danièle et Olivier Gonnet - Source: https://www.afl-lichenologie.fr/Photos_AFL/Photos_AFL_I/Immersaria_athroocarpa.htm
France, session AFL 2010 - Lac du Salagou - Hérault