Inoderma byssaceum (Weigel) Gray

Nat. Arrang. Brit. Plants, 1: 498, 1821. Basionym: Sphaeria byssacea Weigel - Observ. Bot.: 42, 1772.
Synonyms: Arthonia biformis (Flörke) Schaer.; Arthonia byssacea (Weigel) Almq.; Arthonia velana Jatta; Pyrenotea biformis (Flörke) A. Massal.; Pyrenotea byssacea (Weigel) A. Massal.
Distribution: N - Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2007b), Emil (Watson 2014, Fariselli & al. 2020). C - Tosc (Loppi & Frati 2006), Abr. S - Camp.
Description: Thallus crustose, mostly endosubstratic, continuous to finely rimose, very thin to evanescent, whitish to pale fawn, ecorticate, usually forming large patches, without a distinct prothallus, the hyphae I+ and K/I+ pale blue. Apothecia rare, arthonioid, adnate, 0.4-1 mm across, 90-210 µm tall, with a slightly to strongly convex, densely white-pruinose disc, without a distinct proper margin. Proper exciple not well-developed, of paraphysoidal hyphae, densely inspersed by pale granular crystals; epithecium grey to brown, inspersed with pale crystals, 10-25 µm high; hymenium colourless to pale yellowish brown, 45-65 µm high, I+ and K/I+ blue; paraphysoids forming a loose network between the asci, wavy, 1-1.5 µm thick at base, the apical cells up to 2 µm wide; hypothecium dark brown, of intertwined, branched and anastomosing, prosoplectenchymatous hyphae embedded in a gelatinous matrix, 50-120 µm high. Asci 8-spored, clavate, semifissitunicate, without K/I+ blue tholus structures, Arthonia-type. Ascospores (2-)3-4(-5)-septate, hyaline, narrowly obovate, (11-)13-19(-23) x (4-)5-7(-8) µm, with a slightly larger apical cell, the septation microcephalic, starting in or slightly above the middle and extending downwards. Pycnidia emergent, 0.15-1.4 mm in diam., dark brown to black but thickly white-pruinose at least at the base, flattened to urceolate, with pale brown conidial masses usually protruding from the apical pore, of the Lecanactis-type of Vobis (1980), the wall paraplectenchymatous, dark brown to black, pruinose, K+ greenish black, N+ slowly orange-brown, the conidiogenous cells phialidic, of type II of Vobis (1980)the wall. Conidia bacilliform, straight, (4-)5-6 x 1-1.5 µm. Photobiont trentepohlioid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: byssaceum-unknowns, probably 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid and one accessory compound.
Note: a mild-temperate species found on very old deciduous trees with acid bark (in Italy oaks) in open woodlands, often near rivers. Most Italian records are old, and the species was included as “Regionally Extinct” in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Liis Marmor CC BY NC -NDrapha%20corticolaHtfld.jpg

Redinger, K. (1938) Arthoniaceae, Graphidaceae . In Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Band 9, 2 Abt., Part 1 (G. L. Rabenhorst, ed.): 181–404. Leipzig: Borntraeger