Lecanora epanora (Ach.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 377, 1810. Basionym: Lichen epanorus Ach. - Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 39, 1799.
Synonyms: Parmelia epanora (Ach.) Ach.; Patellaria epanora (Ach.) Trevis.
Distribution: N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, of flattened to usually strongly convex-verrucose, aggregated or dispersed, yellow to greenish-yellow, sometimes blackish green areoles, rarely delimited by a thin black prothallus. Areoles more or less covered with pale green to lemon-yellow soredia arranged in globose, convex, finally confluent soralia arising in the center. Apothecia rare, lecanorine, sessile, 0.5-2 mm across, with a concave to slightly convex, brownish-yellow disc, and a flexuose, sometimes sorediate, concolorous thalline margin. Epithecium yellowish to brownish, with yellowish granules insoluble in K; hymenium colourless, 65-85 µm high; paraphyses branched and anastomosed, 1-2 µm thick at base, the apical cells not or only slightly swollen; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, broadly ellipsoid, 8-13 x 5-6.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV+ bright orange. Chemistry: epanorin, rhizocarpic acid, zeorin.
Note: a holarctic early coloniser of steeply inclined to underhanging surfaces of metal-rich metamorphic rocks, mostly found in upland areas; probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
In underhangs rarely wetted by rain
Species of metal-rich rocks
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php . Courtesy: A. Stridvall

Curtis Randall Björk, - CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Canada

P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 13767