Lecanora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 399, 1810. Basionym: Lichen sulphureus Hoffm. - Enum. Lich., Ic.: 32, 1784.
Synonyms: Lecanora polytropa var. sulphurea (Hoffm.) Schaer.; Lecanora sulphurea f. tumidula Bagl.; Lecidea sulphurea (Hoffm.) Wahlenb.; Zeora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Flot.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008), Marc, Umb (Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Genovesi & al. 2011), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Garofalo & al. 1999, Caporale & al. 2008), Sar (Monte 1993, Nöske 2000, Hafellner 2007b, Rizzi & al. 2011, Terribile & al. 2012). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2011, Ottonello 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Schicchi & al. 1997, Merlo 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Hafellner 2007b, Brackel 2008b, Gianguzzi & al. 2009, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus crustose, thick, continuous to cracked, pale yellowish-green to greenish grey, sometimes delimited by a pale to dark prothallus, often starting the life-cycle on Tephromela-species. Medulla white, I-. Apothecia lecanorine only when young, soon appearing biatorine, 1-2 mm across, at first immersed, then protruding, with a greenish yellow to greenish brown, finally almost black, grey-pruinose, strongly convex, sometimes uneven disc, and a very thin, soon excluded thalline margin. Epithecium olive-green to dirty brown, K+ green-black, with granular crystals dissolving in K; hymenium colourless, 50-95 µm high; paraphyses sparingly branched, 2-2.5 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells only slightly thicker; hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, very thin-walled, with a K/I+ blue, tall tholus penetrated by a faintly amyloid apical cushion, the wall K/I-, surrounded by a blue outer layer, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 9-14(-16) x 4-6 µm. Pycnidia black. Conidia thread-like, often curved, 14-20 x 0.5-1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: K+ yellowish brown, C-, KC+ yellow, P-, UV+ dull orange. Chemistry: usnic acid, and atranorin, gangaleoidin, zeorin, α-collatolic acid in variable amounts.
Note: a widespread and locally common lichen which often starts the life-cycle on Tephromela atra, with a wide altitudinal range; in southern and central Italy it is almost as common on limestone as on siliceous rocks.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
paras Tephromela atra

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: rather rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: rather common
Humid mediterranean belt: rather common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Author: Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Sicily, Trapani, Erice, Historical Center



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37559



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 26417