Melanelixia subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Mycol. Res., 108: 882, 2004. Basionym: Parmelia subaurifera Nyl. - Flora, 56: 22, 1873.
Synonyms: Melanelia subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl.; Parmelia olivacea var. subaurifera (Nyl.) O.J. Rich.
Distribution: N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Carvalho 1997, Martellos & Castello 2004, Castello & Skert 2005), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Castello & Skert 2005, Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Lazzarin 1997, 2000, Caniglia & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000c, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008, 2008c, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007, 2009c, 2010b, 2013b, 2008b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010, Brackel 2013), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2014, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2014, Stofer 2006, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Furlanetto 2010, Brackel 2010, Gheza & al. 2015, 2022b, Gheza 2019), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 1998, 2003, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, Griselli & al. 2003, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008, Furlanetto 2010, Matteucci & al. 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Valcuvia 2000, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Sallese 2003, Morselli & Regazzi 2006, Baruffo & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008, Cioffi 2009, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Castello & al. 1994, Brunialti & al. 1999, Putortì & al. 1999b, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Loppi & Corsini 1995, 2003, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996c, 1997b, 1997e, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, 2002, 2002b, 2002c, 2003, 2004, 2004c, 2006, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996b, Monaci & al. 1997, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Putortì & Loppi 1999, 1999b, Benesperi 2000a, 2011, Del Guasta 2001, Loppi & Putortì 2001, Paoli & Loppi 2001, Laganà & al. 2002, Loppi & Frati 2004, Benesperi & al. 2007, Lastrucci & al. 2009, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Loppi & Baragatti 2011, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012, 2012b, 2013, Brackel 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006, Panfili 2007), Laz (Massari & Ravera 2002, Ruisi & al. 2005, Munzi & al. 2007, Ravera 2008b, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Recchia & Villa 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2015, Caporale & al. 2016, Corona & al. 2016, Gheza & al. 2021), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Brackel 2015, Paoli & al. 2015, Brackel 2020, Caporale & Ravera 2020), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Zedda & al. 2001, Stofer 2006, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Nascimbene & al. 2010b, Garofalo & al. 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013, Catalano & al. 2016), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Stofer 2006), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Merlo 2004, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Stofer 2006, Brackel 2008b, Liistro & Cataldo 2011).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, tightly adpressed throughout, forming 3-7(-10) cm wide rosettes, sorediate. Lobes discrete to more often contiguous, 2-4(-6) mm broad, flat, olive-green or olive-brown, smooth to rugulose in central parts, dull throughout, with small, punctiform, yellowish, laminal soralia which often give rise to soft, globose to cylindrical, c. 9.25 mm tall, 0.02-0.06 mm thick isidioid outgrowths. Lower surface pale at margins, dark brown to black in central parts, with mostly simple, dark rhizines. Upper cortex paraplectenchymatous, with a pored epicortex, the cell walls containing isolichenan; medulla white to yellowish; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine, with a brown disc and an often sorediate thalline margin. Epithecium brown; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 9-13 x 5-7 µm. Pycnidia rare, black, immersed, laminal. Conidia weakly fusiform to bacilliform, 5.5-7 x 1 µm Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-, N-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P-, UV-. Chemistry: medulla with lecanoric acid and subauriferin.
Note: a mainly temperate, pioneer species of smooth bark, e.g. on twigs of shrubs and trees, but also on boles of oaks in open woodlands and parklands; common throughout the country, with optimum in the submediterranean belt.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather common
Submediterranean belt: very common
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Harry Taylor Natural History Museum London


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu
originally as Melanelia subaurifera



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009



Juri Nascimbene; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trento, Villa Welsperg, Centro Visitatori del Parco di Paneveggio; altitude: 1030 m
03.04.2009


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php


Mark Rahill - CC BY-SA 4.0
USA


Harry Taylor; Owner: Natural History Museum London



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 34325



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 34325


Harry Taylor Natural History Museum London