in Hawksworth & al., Lichenologist, 12: 107, 1980. Basionym: Lecidea apochroeella var. botryoides Nyl. - Flora, 50: 373, 1867.
Synonyms: Lecidea botryoides (Nyl.) Nyl.
Distribution: N - TAA (Nascimbene 2014). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, rather thin, sometimes inconspicuous, pale to dark green or brown-black, pale brown in shade-forms, finely granulose, the granules 15-50 μm wide. Apothecia rare, micareoid, black, 0.1-0.25 mm across, sometimes confluent into tuberculate, to 0.5 mm wide aggregates, with an initially flat, then rapidly convex to strongly convex disc, without a proper margin. Proper exciple indistinct; epithecium poorly differentiated from the hymenium; hymenium colourless or partly brownish or olivaceous, 25-35 μm high, with dark brown vertical streaks reacting K- or K+ olive, N+ reddish; paraphyses rather few, of two types: a) 0.5-1 mm thick (to 1.5 μm at apices), hyaline and often branched, and, b) 2-2.5 μm thick (to 3.5 μm at apices), fasciculate and brownish (producing the brown streaks in the hymenium); hypothecium dark reddish brown, K-, N-. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, the I+ blue tholus with a wide, I+ dark blue tube structure that expands towards the top, without a pale axial body. Ascospores 0-1-(-3)-septate, hyaline, ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, 8-13(-16) x 2.3-4 μm, sometimes slightly curved, thin-walled. Pycnidia very abundant, black, stalked, 0.2-0.5 mm tall, the stalk simple or branched, thorn-like, black, often with white apices, the wall dark greenish brown, K- or K+ greenish, N+ red. Conidia cylindrical, often biguttulate, 3.5-5 x 1-1.5 μm. Photobiont micareoid, the cells 4-7 μm wide. Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances.
Note: on a wide variety of substrata including soil, bryophytes, muribund plants, siliceous rocks, and conifer bark, mostly on vertical or underhanging faces; certainly much overlooked, but never common in Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)