Micarea denigrata (Fr.) Hedl.

Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 3, 18: 78, 1892. Basionym: Biatora denigrata Fr. - K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl.: 256, 1822.
Synonyms: Biatora aniptiza (Stirt.) Walt. Watson; Biatorina praeviridans (Nyl.) Boistel; Biatorina sinothea auct.; Catillaria denigrata (Fr.) Vain.; Catillaria hemipoliella (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell; Catillaria praeviridans (Nyl.) Zahlbr.; Catillaria spodiza (Nyl.) Zahlbr.; Catillaria synothea auct.; Lecidea aniptiza Stirt.; Lecidea denigrata (Fr.) Nyl.; Lecidea discretula Nyl.; Lecidea fungicola Ach.; Lecidea hemipoliella Nyl.; Lecidea parissima Nyl.; Lecidea praeviridans Nyl.; Lecidea spodiza Nyl.; Lecidea synothea auct.; Micarea denigrata var. friesiana Hedl.; Micarea hemipoliella (Nyl.) Vězda
Distribution: N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Nascimbene 2008c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2007b, 2008c, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb, Piem (Giordani & Malaspina 2016), Lig (TSB 33561). C - Tosc, Umb (CLU 16081), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Nöske 2000). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, rarely endosubstratic and poorly evident, usually composed of convex, white to pale grey-green, smooth, ecorticate areoles, sometimes reacting K+ violet. Apothecia micareoid, sessile, 0.1-0.6 mm across, with a dark grey to black (pale grey to whitish in shade-forms), strongly convex, sometimes tuberculate, epruinose disc, without a proper margin. Proper exciple indistinct: epithecium grey-green, K+ violet; hymenium colourless, 25-40 µm high, C+ pink; paraphyses numerous, branched and anastomosing, 1-1.5 µm thick, not capitate; hypothecium colourless, 60-110 µm high. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, the I+ blue tholus with a wide, I+ dark blue tube structure that expands towards the top, without a pale axial body. Ascospores 1-septate, often with slightly unequal cells, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, straight or slightly curved, (7-)9-16(-18) x 2-3.5 µm. Pycnidia immersed to emergent-stalked, grey to black, the wall greenish, K+ violet. Conidia of three types: i) macroconidia, curved, (1-)3 septate, 12-24 x 1 µm; ii) mesoconidia, simple, 2.5-4.5 x 1-2 µm, extruded as a white mass from the ostiole; iii) microconidia, simple, 5-7.5 x 0.5-1 µm. Photobiont micareoid, thin-walled, the cells 4-7 μm wide. Spot tests: Thallus, apothecial and pycnidial sections K- or K+ violet, C+ red, KC+ red, P- (reactions best visible under the microscope). Chemistry: gyrophoric acid.
Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane, very polymorphic species, most common on wooden poles in the mountains, on fallen trunks and stumps of coniferous and broad-leaved trees, rarer on the bark of conifers; widespread throughout the Alps and the Apennines, to be looked for in the mountains of Sicilia.
Growth form: Crustose
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Pioneer species

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rather common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rather rare
Submediterranean belt: rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php . Courtesy: Anita Stridvall



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9407)
2001/11/27



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 9407



Domenico Puntillo; Owner: Domenico Puntillo
Italy



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16045], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Jebenhausen, auf Birke, ca. 350 m



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[17988], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Wangen, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Str. 14, 48.72438° N, 9.60360° E, 370 m, auf altem Markisenstoff. TK 7223/4. Leg. Schumm 27.04.2012, det. Aptroot 2012



Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Clearwater Valley Date: 2012-04-04 On wood of fence post in garden



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 9407



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 9407



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 9407



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 9407



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[16045], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Jebenhausen, auf Birke, ca. 350 m