Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach.

Lichenogr. Univ.: 522, 1810. Basionym: Lichen parilis Ach. - Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 164, 1799.
Synonyms: Nephroma laevigatum f. reagens (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr.; Nephroma laevigatum f. sorediatum Rabenh.; Nephroma reagens (B. de Lesd.) Gyeln.; Nephromium laevigatum var. parile (Ach.) Nyl.; Nephromium parile f. reagens B. de Lesd.
Distribution: N - VG, Frl (Nascimbene & al. 1998, Tretiach & Hafellner 2000, Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006c, 2007, 2010b, Nascimbene 2008c, 2011), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Lich. Graec. 246: Obermayer 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, Nimis & al. 2015), Lomb (Philippi 1983, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Gheza 2017, Gheza & al. 2022), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2004, Morisi 2005, Isocrono & Piervittori 2008), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & Brunialti 2000). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007, Benesperi 2011), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umb (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, forming rosettes or irregular, 3-8(-12) cm wide, loosely adnate, lobed. Lobes irregular, 3-8 mm wide, elongate, thin. subrotund at apices, entire or marginally dissected, rarely ascending. Upper surface medium to dark red-brown, epruinose, with bluish, irregular, marginal soralia which later expand over the surface. Medulla white; lower surface corticated, pale brown, naked to (rarely) subtomentose, smooth to rugulose. Apothecia very rare, immersed on lower surface at tips of lobes, orbicular, up to 8 mm diam., with a light brown disc and a prominent margin with a thalloid rim. Asci 8-spored, fissitunicate, the thickened apex with a K/I+ blue ring, Peltigera-type. Ascospores subfusiform, 3-septate, pale brown, thick-walled, 17-20 x 5-7 µm. Pycnidia rare, marginal, immersed, punctiform. Conidia rod-shaped, 4-5 x 1-2 µm. Photobiont cyanobacterial (Nostoc in short chains). Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K- or K+ pale yellow. Chemistry: upper cortex with an unknown brown pigment; medulla with zeorin (major), nephrin and other accessory substances.
Note: a cool-temperate to circumboreal-montane lichen found on bark, epiphytic mosses, basic siliceous rocks and soil in humid and sheltered situations, mostly in upland areas.
Growth form: Foliose, broad lobed
Photobiont: cyanobacteria, filamentous (e.g. Nostoc, Scytonema)
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)
Most common in areas with a humid-warm climate (e.g. most of Tyrrenian Italy)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: extremely rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples


Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
Image from: F. Schumm (2008) - Flechten Madeiras, der Kanaren und Azoren. Beck, OHG - ISBN: 978-3-00-023700-3



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (9187)
2001/11/27


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36991)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36991)
2008.02.28


Arsen Gasparyan; Owner: Arsen Gasparyan CC-BY-SA-4.0


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19195], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm.



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm



Felix Schumm – CC BY-SA 4.0
[19196], Norway, Eidford, 60.469° N, 7.066° E, 40 m, growing on shady deciduous tree. Leg. F. Schumm 21.06.2014. Chemistry: dolichorrhizin (= 15 -acetoxyhopane-22-ol), zeorin, hopane-15 ,22-diol by HPTLC, anal. F. Schumm