Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 30: 117, 1880. Basionym: Parmelia hyperopta Ach. - Syn. Meth. Lich.: 208, 1814.
Synonyms: Foraminella hyperopta (Ach.) S.L.F. Mey.; Imbricaria ambigua var. albescens (Wahlenb.) Fr.; Imbricaria hyperopta (Ach.) Körb.; Parmelia ambigua var. albescens (Wahlenb.) Schaer.; Parmelia diffusa var. albescens (Wahlenb.) Rabenh.; Parmelia diffusa var. leucochroa Wallr.
Distribution: N - Frl (Tretiach & Molaro 2007), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008b, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2013b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2014, 2014c, Gottardini & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, 2007b, 2008c, 2009, 2010, 2014, Stofer 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Lang 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Gheza 2019, 2019b), Piem (Morisi & Sereno 1995, Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Matteucci & al. 2008, 2008c, Isocrono & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).
Description: Thallus foliose, heteromerous, dorsiventral, very closely attached, forming up to 3 cm wide, orbicular, regular rosettes that often coalesce to cover much wider surfaces. Lobes radiating, contiguous, flat, 0.5-0.8(-1.5) mm wide, sublinear, irregularly dichotomously branched. Upper surface whitish to grey, often pale brown at margins and lobe tips, dull, smooth, with powdery, white to blue-grey soredia arranged in well-delimited, circular, laminal soralia which sometimes coalesce into a continuously sorediate crust. Lower surface gradually darkening from a narrow brown zone at margins to dark brown or black in the center, with sparse, usually simple rhizines. Upper cortex of tightly packed, anticlinally oriented hyphae, with a pored epicortex, the cell walls with isolichenan; medulla white; algal layer continuous; lower cortex of hyphae running parallel to the surface. Apothecia very rare, lecanorine, 1-2 mm across, with a brown disc and a sorediate thalline margin. Epithecium brownish; hymenium and hypothecium colourless. Asci 8-spored, clavate, Lecanora-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, 8-15 x 2-4 µm. Pycnidia rare, with Psora-type conidiophores. Conidia filiform, falcate, 16-30 x c. 1 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-. KC-, P-; medulla P-, K-, KC-, C-, UV+ white. Chemistry: upper cortex with atranorin; medulla with divaricatic acid.
Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen found on basal parts of trunks, especially of conifers, with a long snow-lie; ecology and distribution resemble those of P. ambigua, but this lichen is slightly less photo- and more hygrophytic.
Growth form: Foliose, narrow lobed
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: very common
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: rare
Submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (33237)
2001/12/10


Triin Aimla; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36840)
2008.02.28



P.L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42045



P.L. Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 42045



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 43935



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36840



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36840



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 04
TSB 36840


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
with P.ambigua


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
with P.ambigua (right)


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/
Parmeliopsis hyperopta enthält im Mark Divarikatsäure (große Zickfack-Kristalle) und in der Rinde Atranorin (kleine, kurze Stäbchen-Kristalle); aufgenommen mit Differential-Interferenzkontrast (oben) bzw. nur mit Polarisationslicht (unten):