Lepra amara (Ach.) Hafellner

in Hafellner & Türk, Stapfia, 104: 171, 2016. Basionym: Variolaria amara Ach. - K. Vetensk.-Akad. Nya Handl., 30, 3: 163, 1809.
Synonyms: Marfloraea amara (Ach.) S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös & J.-S. Hur; Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl. var. amara; Pertusaria amara f. isidiata Harm.; Pertusaria communis var. amara (Ach.) Rabenh.; Pertusaria faginea auct. ital. p.p. non (L.) Leight.
Distribution: N - VG (Carvalho 1997, Craighero 2010), Frl (Craighero 2010, Brackel 2013), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, Lazzarin 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, 2008c, 2011, Nascimbene & al. 2005b, 2006, 2006c, 2006e, 2007, 2013b, Nascimbene & Marini 2007, 2010, Craighero 2010), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, 2006c, 2008b, 2014, Gottardini & al. 2004, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, 2007b, 2009, 2010, 2014, Thor & Nascimbene 2007, Zarabska & al. 2009, Nascimbene & Marini 2015, Nimis & al. 2015, Trindade & al. 2021), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Dalle Vedove & al. 2004, Furlanetto 2010), Piem (Arosio & al. 1998, Piervittori 2003, Isocrono & al. 2005b, Craighero 2010, Furlanetto 2010, Giordani & Malaspina 2016), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Dalle Vedove & al. 2002, Marconi & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008, Benesperi 2009, Craighero 2010, Brackel 2015, Fariselli & al. 2020), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Putortì & al. 1999b, Giordani & al. 2001, 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006, Giordani & Incerti 2008, Craighero 2010, Watson 2014). C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, 2002b, 2002c, 2006, Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi 1996, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, 2010, Putortì & al. 1998, 1999, Putortì & Loppi 1999, 1999b, Benesperi 2000a, 2006, 2011, Loppi & Frati 2006, Ravera & al. 2006, Stofer 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007, Pasquinelli & al. 2009, Brunialti & Frati 2010, Craighero 2010, Pasquinelli & Puccini 2010, Brunialti & al. 2012b, Paoli & al. 2012, Brackel 2015, Nascimbene & al. 2015), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Frati & Brunialti 2006, Brackel 2015), Umb (Ravera 1998, Panfili 2000b, Craighero 2010, Brackel 2015), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1997, Ravera 2002, 2006c, Massari & Ravera 2002, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Ruisi & al. 2005, Ravera & Genovesi 2008, Craighero 2010, Zucconi & al. 2013, Brackel 2015), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Stofer 2006, Craighero 2010, Caporale & al. 2016, Corona & al. 2016), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Caporale & al. 2008, Ravera & al. 2010, Craighero 2010, Genovesi & Ravera 2014, Paoli & al. 2015, Brackel 2020, Caporale & Ravera 2020), Sar (Monte 1993, Zedda 1995, 2002, 2002b, Loi & al. 2000, Zedda & al. 2001, Craighero 2010, Rizzi & al. 2011, Cossu 2013, Neuwirth 2018, Brackel & Berger 2019). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, 2010, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Brunialti & al. 2010, 2013, Catalano & al. 2010, 2016, Craighero 2010, Ravera & Brunialti 2013), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Craighero 2010), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006, Craighero 2010, Brackel 2011), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Incerti & Nimis 2006, Stofer 2006, Craighero 2010, Brackel & Puntillo 2016), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Ottonello 1996, Ottonello & Romano 1997, Schicchi & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Caniglia & Grillo 2006b, Stofer 2006, Craighero 2010, Brackel 2008b, Campisi & al. 2020).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, continuous to fissured, whitish, pale grey or greenish grey, often weakly zoned at margin, delimited by a white prothallus, tasting extremely bitter. Central parts of thallus with numerous, circular, 0.3-1(-1.5) mm wide, white, usually convex to hemispherical soralia. Apothecia extremely rare, immersed in soralia-like warts and not visible without sectioning the warts, the disc densely white-pruinose. Asci 1-spored, broadly cylindrical, the apex with a broad ocular chamber, outer sheath K/I+ blue, otherwise K/I-, Pertusaria-type. Ascospores 1-celled, hyaline, ellipsoid, 130-150 x 40-50 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K- or K+ yellow turning orange-red, C-, KC-, P- or P+ yellow to red; soralia and medulla K- or K+ yellow turning orange-red, C- KC+ fleeting violet, P- or P+ yellow to red, UV-. Chemistry: picrolichenic acid; a chemotype with additional protocetraric and conprotocetraric acids.
Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, certainly the most common epiphytic species of the genus throughout Italy, with a wide ecological range. It often behaves as an aggressive competitor, being able to overgrow other crustose lichens and sometimes even bryophytes. According to Kondratyuk & al. (2015b) the forms corresponding to Pertusaria pulvinata should be segregated into a distinct species. According to Craighero (2010) two chemotypes are present in Italy, one with the pycrolichenic acid syndrome only, the other with additional protocetraric acid; the two chemotypes have a somewhat different distribution within the country, the latter being most frequent in Tyrrhenian Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly asexual, by soredia, or soredia-like structures (e.g. blastidia)

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: rather rare
Oromediterranean belt: rare
Montane belt: very common
Submediterranean belt: common
Padanian area: very rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very common
Humid mediterranean belt: common
Dry mediterranean belt: very rare

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model
Herbarium samples

Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Pontevedra



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (41102)
2001/12/03



P.L. Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (34864)
2002/02/16


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu


Andres Saag; Owner: University of Tartu



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36782)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36782)
2008.02.28



P.L.Nimis; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Herbarium: TSB (36782)
2008.02.28


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010


Antonio Valero; Owner: Antonio Valero
Spain
2010



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Andrea Moro; Owner: Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste
Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Udine, Lago di Sauris, Bosco della Stua, Carnic Alps (Ampezzo Carnico) 1000 m; altitude: 1000 m
12/08/2017



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1320], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, an Quercus, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 01.10.1967.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1320], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, an Quercus, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 01.10.1967.



Felix Schumm - CC BY-SA 4.0
[1320], Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Kreis Göppingen, Marbachtal bei Zell-Börtlingen, an Quercus, ca. 350 m, TK 7223. Leg. et det. F. Schumm 01.10.1967.
1: picrolichenic acid, 2: norstictic acid, 3: protocetraric acid, conf. J.A. Elix


Leif Stridvall - Source: http://www.stridvall.se/la/galleries.php



Pier Luigi Nimis - CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37587


Erichsen C.F.E. 1936. Pertusariaceae. - In: Dr. L. Rabenhorsts Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Bd. IX, Abt. 5, T. 1. Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, pp. 321-512, 513-728. - Public Domain


Erichsen C.F.E. 1936. Pertusariaceae. - In: Dr. L. Rabenhorsts Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Bd. IX, Abt. 5, T. 1. Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, pp. 321-512, 513-728. - Public Domain


Erichsen C.F.E. 1936. Pertusariaceae. - In: Dr. L. Rabenhorsts Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Bd. IX, Abt. 5, T. 1. Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, pp. 321-512, 513-728. - Public Domain



P.L. Nimis CC BY-SA 4.0
TSB 37587


Nere Sorrentino
Spain, Galicia, Pontevedra


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/


Walter Obermayer CC BY-SA 4.0 - Source: Lichens of Noricum - http://lichens-of-noricum.uni-graz.at/