Bacidia biatorina (Körb.) Vain.

Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn., 53, 1: 178, 1922. Basionym: Raphiospora atrosanguinea var. biatorina Körb. - Parerga Lichenol.: 238, 1861.
Synonyms: Bacidia acerina auct. non (Ach.) Arnold
Distribution: C - Sar (Rizzi & al. 2011).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, pale green, grey-green or yellow-green, sometimes brown-spotted, granular, the granules 50-120 µm wide, sometimes isidioid, often browned in upper part. Apothecia lecideine, orange-brown to dark purplish brown, sometimes almost black, rounded, sessile and constricted at base, (0.5-)0.7-1.5 mm across, with a flat disc and a thick, smooth, raised, finally sometimes excluded proper margin. Proper exciple orange-brown to dark red-brown in outer part, paler within, the pigmented parts K+ purple; epithecium brown to orange-brown, K+ purple; hymenium colourless, 80-90 µm high; paraphyses 0.8-1.6 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells up to 4 µm wide, without internal pigment; hypothecium colourless to very pale yellow. Asci 8-spored, clavate, surrounded by a gelatinous I+ blue coat, with a well-developed I+ blue tholus, a I+ darker blue tube and a well-developed ocular chamber, Bacidia-type. Ascospores 9-16(-22)-septate, hyaline, needle-like, twisted in the asci, (45-)60-75(-85) x 2.5-3(-4) µm. Pycnidia rare, pale orange. Conidia thread-like, curved, 9-16 x c- 0.5 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-. Chemistry: thallus without lichen substances; i>Laurocerasi-brown pigment in epithecium, proper exciple, and pycnidial wall. Rubella-orange pigment in epi- and hypothecium, proper exciple, and pycnidial wall.
Note: a rare, oceanic species growing on trunks of mature deciduous trees (often oaks) in old woodlands, mostly in Lobarion-communities. It is included in the Italian red list of epiphytic lichens as “Data Deficient” (Nascimbene & al. 2013c).
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
Restricted to humid-warm, oceanic areas

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: extremely rare
Humid mediterranean belt: extremely rare
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model

Andres Saag - CC BY-SA NC ND
Herbarium: Holotype