Kiliasia pennina (Schaer.) Kistenich, Timdal, Bendiksby & S.Ekman

Taxon, 67: 892, 2018.. Basionym: Lecidea pennina Schaer. - Lich. Helv. Spicil., 3: 120, 1828.
Synonyms: Biatora pennina (Schaer.) Hepp; Catillaria scotina (Körb.) Hertel & H. Kilias; Lecidea aeneiformis (Anzi) Jatta; Lecidea scotina (Körb.) Arnold; Lecidella scotina Körb.; Psora aeneiformis Anzi; Toninia pennina (Schaer.) Gyeln.
Distribution: N - Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Lomb. C - Sar.
Description: Thallus crustose to subsquamulose, episubstratic, medium to dark brown, epruinose to weakly pruinose, consisting of up to 1(-1.5) mm wide, scattered to contiguous, orbicular to angular, flat or weakly convex areoles/squamules. Cortex 40-70 µm thick, overlain with an up to 30 µm thick epinecral later, lacking crystals; medulla white, without crystals. Apothecia lecideine, black, epruinose or faintly pruinose, 0.2-0.8 mm across, with a flat to convex disc and a thin, finally often excluded proper margin. Proper exciple grey in outer part, pale grey to colourless within, the pigmented parts K+ violet, N+ violet, without crystals; epithecium grey, K+ violet, N+ violet, 9-20 µm high; hymenium colourless, 50-60 µm high; paraphyses easily made free, 1.8-2.6 µm thick, the apical cells clavate, up to 8 µm wide, surrounded by a pigmented gel; hypothecium colourless, without crystals, 60-150 µm high. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, surrounded by a gelatinous I+ blue coat, with a well-developed I+ blue tholus with a I+ darker blue tube and a well-developed ocular chamber, Bacidia-type. Ascospores 1-3-septate, hyaline, bacilliform or partly fusiform, 8.5-13(-16) x 3-5 µm. Pycnidia black, immersed. Conidia thread-like. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K+ violet (cortex, in section!), C-, KC-, P, UV-. Chemistry: cortex, exciple and epithecium with the Sedifolia-grey pigment.
Note: a rarely collected lichen of continental-dry areas, found on steeply inclined seepage tracks of dolomite, rarely of compact limestone, almost always growing on cyanobacterial colonies when young.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: rocks
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual
On otherwise dry surfaces with short periods of water seepage after rain

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: very rare
Montane belt: very rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:

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Solar irradiation:

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Aridity:

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Eutrophication:

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Poleotolerance:

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Altitudinal distribution:

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Predictive model

Einar Timdal - Source: http://nhm2.uio.no/lav/web/index.html - CC BY-NC