Candelariella antennaria Räsänen

Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent., 128, 3: 137, 1939.
Distribution: N- Frl (TSB 1564),
Description: Thallus crustose, whitish to grey, indistinct or somewhat granular, sometimes occurring only around the apothecia. Granules (when present) 0.1-0.2 mm in diam., sometimes developing into 0.2-0.5 mm wide, irregularly shaped, adpressed and flattened, scattered or coalescing areoles. Apothecia lecanorine, yellow, adnate to slightly constricted at base, 0.2-0.7 mm across, with a rounded to angular, flat to slightly convex, ochre-yellow to yellow disc, and a paler yellow (often greyish in outer side), persistent, smooth, entire to slightly incised, 0.025-0.05 mm thick proper margin. Thalline exciple with a 4-18 μm thick, indistinct cortex of 1-2(-3) cell layers, of thin-walled, isodiametric cells, covered with a layer of yellowish-brown, angular crystals; proper exciple prosoplenchymatous, of branched, radiating hyphae, 27-40 μm wide in uppermost part, with rectangular cells, not forming a stipe penetrating into the algal layer; epithecium yellow-brown, with angular crystals; hymenium colourless, inspersed with oil droplets, 50-70 μm high, I+ blue; paraphyses simple or sparingly branched, 1.5-2 μm thick at mid-level, the apical cells 3–6 μm wide; hypothecium colourless, with oil droplets, 20-50 μm high. Asci 8–spored, clavate, with an apical dome which is I+ blue only in the internal, lower part, interrupted in the centre by a I+ paler blue strip, Candelaria-type Ascospores 1-celled (rarely a few 1-septate), hyaline, straight to slightly curved, oblong to narrowly ellipsoid (11-)12-17(-20) x 4–6(-7) μm. Photobiont chlorococcoid, the cells 5-20 μm in diam. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P-. Chemistry: pulvinic acid derivatives.
Note: A species growing on bark, mostly of isolated trees (e.g. along waysides), easily confused with epiphytic samples of C. aurella; probably more widespread in Italy.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: bark
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: absent
Subalpine belt: absent
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: absent
Submediterranean belt: very rare
Padanian area: extremely rare
Humid submediterranean belt: very rare
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model

Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Okanagan Valley, Osoyoos area Date: June, 2007 Lignicolous, on dust-impregnated log