Biatora cuprea (Sommerf.) Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 265, 1831. Basionym: Lecidea cuprea Sommerf. - Suppl. Fl. Lapp.: 165, 1826.
Distribution: N - TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).
Description: Thallus crustose, episubstratic, coarsely areolate-verruculose to subsquamulose, whitish to brownish white, esorediate. Areoles 0.25-1 mm across, convex, sometimes with raised margins and appearing almost squamulose. Apothecia biatorine, 0.3-1.2 mm across, adnate, not or only slightly constricted at base, reddish brown to cinnamon-brown (old apothecia sometimes almost black), with a convex, often tuberculate disc, and a very thin, paler, soon excluded proper margin. Proper exciple 50-120 µm wide laterally, of radiating hyphae, dark brown to reddish brown in outer part, colourless or yellowish within; epithecium scarcely differentiated from the hymenium, colourless to pale yellow; hymenium colourless or sometimes brown-striped, 50-80 µm high; paraphyses mostly simple, conglutinated, 1-2.5 µm thick at mid-level, the apical cells to 3 µm wide; hypothecium (incl. subhymenium) 120-360 µm high, colourless or partly pale reddish brown to pale yellow. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical-clavate, with a K/I+ blue apical dome penetrated by a narrow, K/I- apical cushion surrounded by a narrow, deeply K/I+ blue zone, the wall K/I- but surrounded by a I+ red-brown and K/I+ blue outer layer, the ocular chamber small, Biatora-type. Ascospores 1-celled (rarely 1-2-septate), hyaline, narrowly ellipsoid, (10-)13-17(-22) x (3.5-)4.5-5.2(-6) µm, with a thin perispore. Pycnidia very rare, pyriform, colourless. Conidia fusiform or bacilliform, 4-6.5 x c. 0.8 µm. Photobiont chlorococcoid. Spot tests: thallus K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange-red. Chemistry: argopsin, norargopsin.
Note: most frequent on soil and plant debris on siliceous substrata in upland areas. According to Printzen (1995) this species is known with certainty only from northern Europe, and western North America, but it has been reported from several localities in the Alps (see e.g. Roux & coll. 2014). Printzen (in litt.), however, thinks that its presence in the Alps is dubious, and most records from this area could refer to B. subduplex.
Growth form: Crustose
Substrata: soil, terricolous mosses, and plant debris
Photobiont: green algae other than Trentepohlia
Reproductive strategy: mainly sexual

Commonnes-rarity: (info)

Alpine belt: very rare
Subalpine belt: rare
Oromediterranean belt: absent
Montane belt: extremely rare
Submediterranean belt: absent
Padanian area: absent
Humid submediterranean belt: absent
Humid mediterranean belt: absent
Dry mediterranean belt: absent

pH of the substrata:


Solar irradiation:








Altitudinal distribution:


Predictive model

Einar Timdal - Source: - CC BY-NC

Curtis Randall Björk – CC BY-SA 4.0
British Columbia, Boundary Ranges On soil in alpine tundra 2013-07-01